m-RESIST, a Mobile Therapeutic Intervention for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Usability Study

Eva Grasa, Jussi Seppälä, Anna Alonso-Solis*, Marianne Haapea, Matti Isohanni, Jouko Miettunen, Johanna Caro Mendivelso, Cari Almazan, Katya Rubinstein, Asaf Caspi, Zsolt Unoka, Kinga Farkas, Judith Usall, Susana Ochoa, Shenja van der Graaf, Charlotte Jewell, Anna Triantafillou, Matthias Stevens, Elisenda Reixach, Jesus BerdunIluminada Corripio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: In the European Union, around 5 million people are affected by psychotic disorders, and approximately 30%-50% of people with schizophrenia have treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Mobile health (mHealth) interventions may be effective in preventing relapses, increasing treatment adherence, and managing some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia seem willing and able to use smartphones to monitor their symptoms and engage in therapeutic interventions. mHealth studies have been performed with other clinical populations but not in populations with TRS. Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the 3-month prospective results of the m-RESIST intervention. This study aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of the m-RESIST intervention and the satisfaction among patients with TRS after using this intervention. Methods: A prospective multicenter feasibility study without a control group was undertaken with patients with TRS. This study was performed at 3 sites: Sant Pau Hospital (Barcelona, Spain), Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary), and Sheba Medical Center and Gertner Institute of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research (Ramat-Gan, Israel). The m-RESIST intervention consisted of a smartwatch, a mobile app, a web-based platform, and a tailored therapeutic program. The m-RESIST intervention was delivered to patients with TRS and assisted by mental health care providers (psychiatrists and psychologists). Feasibility, usability, acceptability, and user satisfaction were measured. Results: This study was performed with 39 patients with TRS. The dropout rate was 18% (7/39), the main reasons being as follows: loss to follow-up, clinical worsening, physical discomfort of the smartwatch, and social stigma. Patients’ acceptance of m-RESIST ranged from moderate to high. The m-RESIST intervention could provide better control of the illness and appropriate care, together with offering user-friendly and easy-to-use technology. In terms of user experience, patients indicated that m-RESIST enabled easier and quicker communication with clinicians and made them feel more protected and safer. Patients’ satisfaction was generally good: 78% (25/32) considered the quality of service as good or excellent, 84% (27/32) reported that they would use it again, and 94% (30/32) reported that they were mostly satisfied. Conclusions: The m-RESIST project has provided the basis for a new modular program based on novel technology: the m-RESIST intervention. This program was well-accepted by patients in terms of acceptability, usability, and satisfaction. Our results offer an encouraging starting point regarding mHealth technologies for patients with TRS. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03064776; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT03064776

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere46179
JournalJMIR Formative Research
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2023


  • acceptability
  • adherence
  • digital intervention
  • digital mental health
  • feasibility
  • mental disorder
  • mental health
  • mental illness
  • mHealth
  • mobile health
  • mobile intervention
  • mobile phone
  • psychosis
  • schizophrenia
  • symptom management
  • treatment-resistant
  • usability


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