The specific aim of this study is to identify the performance features of cancer centers in the European Union by using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The fsQCA method represents cases (cancer centers) as a combination of explanatory and outcome conditions. This study uses data on seven centers from a European benchmarking project: BENCH-CAN. The fsQCA uses the net income and productivity as the outcome conditions and five explanatory conditions: the level of dedication to R&D, annual budget level, size, type, and whether the center is a comprehensive cancer center. Despite the modest number of cases, the study successfully applies the fsQCA. The findings show that public, comprehensive cancer centers with at least two of the three other explanatory conditions (dedication to R&D, annual budget, or size) have an association with high net income and high productivity.