Recent discussions of poverty recognize its multi-dimensional character, focusing on multiple sources of deprivation that poor households experience. However, for urban planners and politicians to implement intervention programs effectively in mega-cities, knowledge on sources and spatial patterns of multiple deprivations is needed. Disaggregated analysis potentially allows them to target programs to specific locations, set priorities in line with local needs, and be efficient in the use of funding. This article maps multiple deprivations of households in three Indian mega-cities, at the electoral ward level. It uses the livelihoods approach to address the following questions: 1) Is there a spatial concentration of deprivations within cities and do poverty levels differ between them? 2) Do cities differ in the types of deprivations? and 3) do these cluster within the city? The paper compares Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai, using a multi-criteria model within a geographical information system developed for identifying hotspots of multiple deprivation. It further links the results of deprivation mapping to questions of urban governance by comparing deprivation results with data on slums currently used to target anti-poverty programs. Finally, the opportunities of using spatial data for improving priorities and efficient use of funds in poverty programs are analyzed.
- Multiple deprivations
- Urban governance