Maxwell's equations explain why irreversible electroporation will not heat up a metal stent

Cees W.M. van der Geld*, Ruben T. van Gaalen, Hester J. Scheffer, Jantien A. Vogel, Willemien van den Bos, Martijn R. Meijerink, Marc G.H. Besselink, Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk, Martin J.C. van Gemert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) is a promising clinical ablation therapy for the treatment of cancer, but issues with the generation of heat must be solved before safe and effective clinical results can be obtained. In the present study, we show that a metal stent will not be noticeably heated up by IRE pulses under typical clinical conditions. Derivation of this non-intuitive result required the application of Maxwell's equations to the tissue-stent configuration. Subsequently, straightforward and arguably accurate simplifications of the electric field generated by two needles in tissue surrounding a metal stent have enabled the modeling of the heat generation and the transport of heat in IRE procedures. Close to a stent that is positioned in between two needles, temperatures in a typical run of 100 s, 1 Hz pulses, may remain notably lower than without the stent. This is the explanation of the experimentally observed low temperature rim of viable tissue around the stent, whereas all tissue was non-viable without stent, found in tissue model experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120962
JournalInternational journal of heat and mass transfer
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Heat conduction
  • Irreversible electroporation
  • Stent
  • Electric field


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