This paper explores the feasibility of using the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radio channel properties to passively detect and localize multiple humans in indoor environments. We propose to utilize the unique reverberation characteristics of indoor channels for the purpose of detecting, and the power angular delay profile (PADP) for localizing humans. On the one hand, the reverberation time corresponds with the decay rate of multipath in a closed or partially closed cavity, and varies with the change of the number of humans or the moving of humans relative to the antennas at link ends. On the other hand, the PADP is proposed to be calculated by the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) super resolution algorithm with frequency smoothing preprocessing. The proposed approach is evaluated based on real-world MIMO radio channel measurements obtained from a meeting room. Measurements with and without the presence of humans have been conducted, where the maximum number of humans considered is four. Humans facing different directions, either in parallel or orthogonal to the direct line between the transmit and the receive antennas have been taken into account. In term of the detection feasibility, it is found that the change of the number of humans as well as the change of their facing/moving directions inside the partial reverberant region can be reflected on the change of the reverberation time estimated from the power delay profile of channel. In term of the localization feasibility, it is found that single human location can be well associated to the peak of the variation of the PADP during his/her movement, while multiple humans’ movements result in obvious power variation in the very vicinity of some of them, and also in the vicinity of some background objects that is far from target humans.
- Indoor radio channel
- Reverberation time
- Power delay angular profile
- Passive detection and localization of humans