Several techniques reported in the literature for measuring solids concentration and solids velocity in (dense) gas-solid two-phase flow have been briefly reviewed. An optical measuring system, based on detection of light reflected by the suspended particles, has been developed to measure local solids concentration and local axial solids velocity in dense gas-solid two phase flows. This system has been applied to study hydrodynamics of a cold-flow circulating fluidized bed unit operated in the dense flow regime (uD: 7.5¿15 m s¿1 and Gs = 100¿400 kg m¿2 s¿). With increasing solids mass flux, at constant superficial gas velocity, lateral solids segregation became more pronounced (i.e. extent of development of core-annulus structure) while the radial profiles of axial solids velocity hardly changed. A decrease in superficial gas velocity, at constant solids mass flux, also augmented the lateral solids segregation. The axial solids velocity decreased over the entire tube radius, although the shape of the profiles showed no strong dependence with respect to the superficial gas velocity. Average solids mass fluxes calculated from the measured local values of solids concentration and solids velocity exceeded the imposed solids mass flux, a finding which could be explained by the downflow observed visually of solid particles close to the tube wall. In addition, cross-sectional averaged solids concentrations obtained on the basis of the optical measuring system and those obtained from the pressure gradient measurements showed satisfactory agreement.
Nieuwland, J. J., Nieuwland, J. J., Meijer, R., Kuipers, J. A. M., & van Swaaij, W. P. M. (1996). Measurements of solids concentration and axial solids velocity in gas-solid two-phase flows. Powder technology, 87(2), 127-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-5910(95)03081-6