Measuring avoidance of pain: validation of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version

Michiel F. Reneman, Marco Kleen, H.R. Trompetter, Henrica R. Schiphorst-Preuper, Albere Koke, Bianca van Baalen, Karlein Maria Gertrudis Schreurs

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Psychometric research on widely used questionnaires aimed at measuring experiential avoidance of chronic pain has led to inconclusive results. To test the structural validity, internal consistency, and construct validity of a recently developed short questionnaire: the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version (AAQ-II-P). Cross-sectional validation study among 388 adult patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain admitted for multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation in four tertiary rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. Cronbach’s α was calculated to analyze internal consistency. Principal component analysis was performed to analyze factor structure. Construct validity was analyzed by examining the association between acceptance of pain and measures of psychological flexibility (two scales and sum), pain catastrophizing (three scales and sum), and mental and physical functioning. Interpretation was based on a-priori defined hypotheses. The compound of the seven items of the AAQ-II-P shows a Cronbach’s α of 0.87. The single component explained 56.2% of the total variance. Correlations ranged from r=−0.21 to 0.73. Two of the predefined hypotheses were rejected and seven were not rejected. The AAQ-II-P measures a single component and has good internal consistency, and construct validity is not rejected. Thus, the construct validity of the AAQ-II-P sum scores as indicator of experiential avoidance of pain was supported.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-129
JournalInternational journal of rehabilitation research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • IR-91563
  • METIS-299489


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