In this chapter the input-process-outcomes-context framework, introduced in Chapter 1 is used for categorising and describing input indicators, process indicators, outcome indicators and context indicators. The chapter starts out with a review and further illustration of this framework and follows up with a discussion of the various types of indicators that are generated from it. As such the chapter defines an exhaustive set of education indicators, categorized according to the input, context, process, output framework and recognizing the hierarchical nature of education systems (distinguishing a national system, school, classroom and individual student level). Specific attention is given to outcome indicators. Outcome indicators are further differentiated as output, outcome and impact indicators. Output indicators are seen as the more direct outcomes of schooling, often measured by means of standardized achievement tests. Outcome indicators, also described as “attainment indicators”, are summary statistics of participation and graduation rates. Impact indicators refer to the social status of students having reached certain levels of schooling.
|Title of host publication||Perspectives on educational quality : illustrative outcomes on primary and secondary schooling in the Netherlands|
|Editors||J Scheerens, H. Luyten, J. van Ravens|
|Place of Publication||Dordrecht|
|Number of pages||148|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|
|Name||SpringerBriefs in education|
Scheerens, J. (2011). Measuring educational quality by means of indicators. In J. Scheerens, H. Luyten, & J. van Ravens (Eds.), Perspectives on educational quality : illustrative outcomes on primary and secondary schooling in the Netherlands (pp. 35-50). (SpringerBriefs in education; Vol. 1, No. 1). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0926-3_2