Methods in the spatial deep learning: current status and future direction

Bhogendra Mishra*, A. Dahal, Nirajan Luintel, Tej Bahadur Shahi, Saroj Panthi, Shiva Pariyar, Bhoj Raj Ghimire

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


A deep neural network (DNN), evolved from a traditional artificial neural network, has been seamlessly adapted for the spatial data domain over the years. Deep learning (DL) has been widely applied for a number of applications and a variety of thematic domains. This article reports on a systematic review of methods adapted in major DNN applications with remote sensing data published between 2010 and 2020 aiming to understand the major application area, a framework for model development and the prospect of DL application in spatial data analysis. It has been found that image fusion, change detection, scene classification, image segmentation, and feature detection are the most commonly used application areas. Based on the publication in these thematic areas, a generic framework has been devised to guide a model development using DL based on the methods followed in the past. Finally, recent trends and prospects in terms of data, method, and application of deep learning with remote sensing data are discussed. The review finds that while DL-based approaches have the potential to unfold hidden information, they face challenges in selecting the most appropriate data, methods, and model parameterizations which may hinder the performance. The increasing trend of application of DL in the spatial domain is expected to leverage its strength at its optimum to the research frontiers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-232
Number of pages18
JournalSpatial Information Research
Issue number2
Early online date21 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


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