Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems

S.M. Chakkalakkal Abdulla, L.J. Kauppinen, Mindert Dijkstra, Meint J. de Boer, R.M. de Ridder, Gijsbertus J.M. Krijnen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

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Abstract

We propose to use a self aligning technology (Figure 1) to integrate micro bimorph cantilevers with tips with respect to e.g. the holes in a photonic band gap (PBG) microresonator coupling section in order to perturb its evanescent field [1]. Using a simplified process, we first fabricated bimorph cantilevers on top of silicon, by surface micromachining techniques in which the upper electrode is a thin layer of Chromium on the top of a thick layer of dielectric material which is Silicon Rich Nitride (SiN). The resonance frequencies and pull in voltages of these electrostatically actuated bimorph cantilevers with off-state deflection [2] are analysed and it is found that the higher resonance frequencies come at the price of larger switching voltages (Figure 2-3). This allows for fabrication of relative stiff cantilevers with resonance frequencies in the MHz range to interact with the evanescent field of PBG crystals in which the mechanical elements start to play a role typically with a distance <400 nanometers. We have also fabricated bimorph cantilevers without tips, integrated on top of various optical systems like ring resonators, photonic crystals and planar waveguides. Analytical and numerical models are developed to predict the resonance frequencies and the pull-in voltages of these switches, including the effect of undercut and validated it with experimental data. We have observed selective wavelength on/off switching by perturbing the near band edge resonance of a waveguide grating with a 20 μm wide silicon nitride AFM cantilever, without using its tip area (Figure 4). The observed mechanical perturbation allows 15 dB on/off switching of a specific wavelength and a wavelength tuning of approximately 60 pm. In conclusion, here we describe the technology for fabricating integrated bimorph switches, the optimization studies of the cantilever designs and measurements of mechano-optical interactions using an AFM based cantilever. These optical switches have potential application in the field of elecommunication networks.
Original languageUndefined
Title of host publicationThe Sense of Contact 12
Place of PublicationZeist
PublisherFHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches
Pages1-2
Number of pages2
ISBN (Print)978-90-74702-56-0
Publication statusPublished - 8 Apr 2010
Event12th Sensor Technology Conference Sense of Contact 2010 - Conferentiecentrum Woudschoten, Zeist, Netherlands
Duration: 8 Apr 20108 Apr 2010
Conference number: 12

Publication series

Name
PublisherFHI Federatie Van Technologiebranches

Workshop

Workshop12th Sensor Technology Conference Sense of Contact 2010
CountryNetherlands
CityZeist
Period8/04/108/04/10

Keywords

  • IR-75941
  • EWI-19575
  • TST-ACTUATORS
  • METIS-275929

Cite this

Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S. M., Kauppinen, L. J., Dijkstra, M., de Boer, M. J., de Ridder, R. M., & Krijnen, G. J. M. (2010). Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems. In The Sense of Contact 12 (pp. 1-2). Zeist: FHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches.
Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M. ; Kauppinen, L.J. ; Dijkstra, Mindert ; de Boer, Meint J. ; de Ridder, R.M. ; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M. / Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems. The Sense of Contact 12. Zeist : FHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches, 2010. pp. 1-2
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abstract = "We propose to use a self aligning technology (Figure 1) to integrate micro bimorph cantilevers with tips with respect to e.g. the holes in a photonic band gap (PBG) microresonator coupling section in order to perturb its evanescent field [1]. Using a simplified process, we first fabricated bimorph cantilevers on top of silicon, by surface micromachining techniques in which the upper electrode is a thin layer of Chromium on the top of a thick layer of dielectric material which is Silicon Rich Nitride (SiN). The resonance frequencies and pull in voltages of these electrostatically actuated bimorph cantilevers with off-state deflection [2] are analysed and it is found that the higher resonance frequencies come at the price of larger switching voltages (Figure 2-3). This allows for fabrication of relative stiff cantilevers with resonance frequencies in the MHz range to interact with the evanescent field of PBG crystals in which the mechanical elements start to play a role typically with a distance <400 nanometers. We have also fabricated bimorph cantilevers without tips, integrated on top of various optical systems like ring resonators, photonic crystals and planar waveguides. Analytical and numerical models are developed to predict the resonance frequencies and the pull-in voltages of these switches, including the effect of undercut and validated it with experimental data. We have observed selective wavelength on/off switching by perturbing the near band edge resonance of a waveguide grating with a 20 μm wide silicon nitride AFM cantilever, without using its tip area (Figure 4). The observed mechanical perturbation allows 15 dB on/off switching of a specific wavelength and a wavelength tuning of approximately 60 pm. In conclusion, here we describe the technology for fabricating integrated bimorph switches, the optimization studies of the cantilever designs and measurements of mechano-optical interactions using an AFM based cantilever. These optical switches have potential application in the field of elecommunication networks.",
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author = "{Chakkalakkal Abdulla}, S.M. and L.J. Kauppinen and Mindert Dijkstra and {de Boer}, {Meint J.} and {de Ridder}, R.M. and Krijnen, {Gijsbertus J.M.}",
year = "2010",
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Chakkalakkal Abdulla, SM, Kauppinen, LJ, Dijkstra, M, de Boer, MJ, de Ridder, RM & Krijnen, GJM 2010, Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems. in The Sense of Contact 12. FHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches, Zeist, pp. 1-2, 12th Sensor Technology Conference Sense of Contact 2010, Zeist, Netherlands, 8/04/10.

Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems. / Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, Mindert; de Boer, Meint J.; de Ridder, R.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

The Sense of Contact 12. Zeist : FHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches, 2010. p. 1-2.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

TY - GEN

T1 - Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems

AU - Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.

AU - Kauppinen, L.J.

AU - Dijkstra, Mindert

AU - de Boer, Meint J.

AU - de Ridder, R.M.

AU - Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

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N2 - We propose to use a self aligning technology (Figure 1) to integrate micro bimorph cantilevers with tips with respect to e.g. the holes in a photonic band gap (PBG) microresonator coupling section in order to perturb its evanescent field [1]. Using a simplified process, we first fabricated bimorph cantilevers on top of silicon, by surface micromachining techniques in which the upper electrode is a thin layer of Chromium on the top of a thick layer of dielectric material which is Silicon Rich Nitride (SiN). The resonance frequencies and pull in voltages of these electrostatically actuated bimorph cantilevers with off-state deflection [2] are analysed and it is found that the higher resonance frequencies come at the price of larger switching voltages (Figure 2-3). This allows for fabrication of relative stiff cantilevers with resonance frequencies in the MHz range to interact with the evanescent field of PBG crystals in which the mechanical elements start to play a role typically with a distance <400 nanometers. We have also fabricated bimorph cantilevers without tips, integrated on top of various optical systems like ring resonators, photonic crystals and planar waveguides. Analytical and numerical models are developed to predict the resonance frequencies and the pull-in voltages of these switches, including the effect of undercut and validated it with experimental data. We have observed selective wavelength on/off switching by perturbing the near band edge resonance of a waveguide grating with a 20 μm wide silicon nitride AFM cantilever, without using its tip area (Figure 4). The observed mechanical perturbation allows 15 dB on/off switching of a specific wavelength and a wavelength tuning of approximately 60 pm. In conclusion, here we describe the technology for fabricating integrated bimorph switches, the optimization studies of the cantilever designs and measurements of mechano-optical interactions using an AFM based cantilever. These optical switches have potential application in the field of elecommunication networks.

AB - We propose to use a self aligning technology (Figure 1) to integrate micro bimorph cantilevers with tips with respect to e.g. the holes in a photonic band gap (PBG) microresonator coupling section in order to perturb its evanescent field [1]. Using a simplified process, we first fabricated bimorph cantilevers on top of silicon, by surface micromachining techniques in which the upper electrode is a thin layer of Chromium on the top of a thick layer of dielectric material which is Silicon Rich Nitride (SiN). The resonance frequencies and pull in voltages of these electrostatically actuated bimorph cantilevers with off-state deflection [2] are analysed and it is found that the higher resonance frequencies come at the price of larger switching voltages (Figure 2-3). This allows for fabrication of relative stiff cantilevers with resonance frequencies in the MHz range to interact with the evanescent field of PBG crystals in which the mechanical elements start to play a role typically with a distance <400 nanometers. We have also fabricated bimorph cantilevers without tips, integrated on top of various optical systems like ring resonators, photonic crystals and planar waveguides. Analytical and numerical models are developed to predict the resonance frequencies and the pull-in voltages of these switches, including the effect of undercut and validated it with experimental data. We have observed selective wavelength on/off switching by perturbing the near band edge resonance of a waveguide grating with a 20 μm wide silicon nitride AFM cantilever, without using its tip area (Figure 4). The observed mechanical perturbation allows 15 dB on/off switching of a specific wavelength and a wavelength tuning of approximately 60 pm. In conclusion, here we describe the technology for fabricating integrated bimorph switches, the optimization studies of the cantilever designs and measurements of mechano-optical interactions using an AFM based cantilever. These optical switches have potential application in the field of elecommunication networks.

KW - IR-75941

KW - EWI-19575

KW - TST-ACTUATORS

KW - METIS-275929

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 978-90-74702-56-0

SP - 1

EP - 2

BT - The Sense of Contact 12

PB - FHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches

CY - Zeist

ER -

Chakkalakkal Abdulla SM, Kauppinen LJ, Dijkstra M, de Boer MJ, de Ridder RM, Krijnen GJM. Micro bimorph cantilever switches for tuning integrated optical systems. In The Sense of Contact 12. Zeist: FHI - Federatie Van Technologiebranches. 2010. p. 1-2