Microfluidic Electrochemistry Meets Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry - In Situ Generation, Separation, and Detection of Isomeric Conjugates of Paracetamol and Ethoxyquin

Oxana Korzhenko, Pascal Führer, Valentin Göldner, Wouter Olthuis, Mathieu Odijk*, Uwe Karst*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Over the last 3 decades, electrochemistry (EC) has been successfully applied in phase I and phase II metabolism simulation studies. The electrochemically generated phase I metabolite-like oxidation products can react with selected reagents to form phase II conjugates. During conjugate formation, the generation of isomeric compounds is possible. Such isomeric conjugates are often separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Here, we demonstrate a powerful approach that combines EC with ion mobility spectrometry to separate possible isomeric conjugates. In detail, we present the hyphenation of a microfluidic electrochemical chip with an integrated mixer coupled online to trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (ToF-HRMS), briefly chipEC-TIMS-ToF-HRMS. This novel method achieves results in several minutes, which is much faster than traditional separation approaches like HPLC, and was applied to the drug paracetamol and the controversial feed preservative ethoxyquin. The analytes were oxidized in situ in the electrochemical microfluidic chip under formation of reactive intermediates and mixed with different thiol-containing reagents to form conjugates. These were analyzed by TIMS-ToF-HRMS to identify possible isomers. It was observed that the oxidation products of both paracetamol and ethoxyquin form two isomeric conjugates, which are characterized by different ion mobilities, with each reagent. Therefore, using this hyphenated technique, it is possible to not only form reactive oxidation products and their conjugates in situ but also separate and detect these isomeric conjugates within only a few minutes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12740-12747
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical chemistry
Volume93
Issue number37
Early online date8 Sep 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Sep 2021

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