Wet granular materials in a quasistatic steady-state shear flow have been studied with discrete particle simulations. Macroscopic quantities, consistent with the conservation laws of continuum theory, are obtained by time averaging and spatial coarse graining. Initial studies involve understanding the effect of liquid content and liquid properties like the surface tension on the macroscopic quantities. Two parameters of the liquid bridge contact model have been identified as the constitutive parameters that influence the macroscopic rheology (i) the rupture distance of the liquid bridge model, which is proportional to the liquid content, and (ii) the maximum adhesive force, as controlled by the surface tension of the liquid. Subsequently, a correlation is developed between these microparameters and the steady-state cohesion in the limit of zero confining pressure. Furthermore, as second result, the macroscopic torque measured at the walls, which is an experimentally accessible parameter, is predicted from our simulation results with the same dependence on the microparameters. Finally, the steady- state cohesion of a realistic non-linear liquid bridge contact model scales well with the steady-state cohesion for a simpler linearized irreversible contact model with the same maximum adhesive force and equal energy dissipated per contact.
Roy, S., Singh, A., Luding, S., & Weinhart, T. (2016). Micro–macro transition and simplified contact models for wet granular materials. Computational particle mechanics, 3(4), 449-462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40571-015-0061-8