Microstructural and chemical transformation of thin Ti/Pd and TiDy/Pd bi-later films induced by vacuum annealing

W.F. Lisowski, Enrico G. Keim, Z. Kaszkur, M.A. Smithers, A.H.J. van den Berg, Mark A. Smithers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we made a comparative study of the high-temperature annealing impact on thin titanium deuteride (TiD y ) films covered by an ultrathin Pd layer, and on Ti/Pd bilayer films. The bilayer films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were in situ annealed using the same annealing procedure. It was found that the surface and the bulk morphology of both films undergo different annealing-induced transformations, leading to an extensive intermixing between the Ti and Pd layers and the formation of a new PdTi2 bimetallic phase. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, as well as XPS depth profiling all provided evidence of a different distribution of Pd and Ti in the annealed TiD y /Pd film compared with the annealed Ti/Pd film. Our results show that thermal decomposition of TiD y , as a consequence of annealing the TiD y /Pd film, modifies the intermixing process, thereby promoting Ti diffusion into the Pd-rich top layer of the TiD y film and thus providing a more likely path for the formation of the PdTi2 phase than in an annealed Ti/Pd film
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)1489-1498
Number of pages10
JournalAnalytical and bioanalytical chemistry
Volume389
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Keywords

  • IR-74801
  • METIS-245385

Cite this

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title = "Microstructural and chemical transformation of thin Ti/Pd and TiDy/Pd bi-later films induced by vacuum annealing",
abstract = "Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we made a comparative study of the high-temperature annealing impact on thin titanium deuteride (TiD y ) films covered by an ultrathin Pd layer, and on Ti/Pd bilayer films. The bilayer films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were in situ annealed using the same annealing procedure. It was found that the surface and the bulk morphology of both films undergo different annealing-induced transformations, leading to an extensive intermixing between the Ti and Pd layers and the formation of a new PdTi2 bimetallic phase. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, as well as XPS depth profiling all provided evidence of a different distribution of Pd and Ti in the annealed TiD y /Pd film compared with the annealed Ti/Pd film. Our results show that thermal decomposition of TiD y , as a consequence of annealing the TiD y /Pd film, modifies the intermixing process, thereby promoting Ti diffusion into the Pd-rich top layer of the TiD y film and thus providing a more likely path for the formation of the PdTi2 phase than in an annealed Ti/Pd film",
keywords = "IR-74801, METIS-245385",
author = "W.F. Lisowski and Keim, {Enrico G.} and Z. Kaszkur and M.A. Smithers and {van den Berg}, A.H.J. and Smithers, {Mark A.}",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1007/s00216-007-1594-3",
language = "Undefined",
volume = "389",
pages = "1489--1498",
journal = "Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry",
issn = "1618-2642",
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}

Microstructural and chemical transformation of thin Ti/Pd and TiDy/Pd bi-later films induced by vacuum annealing. / Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; Kaszkur, Z.; Smithers, M.A.; van den Berg, A.H.J.; Smithers, Mark A.

In: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, Vol. 389, No. 5, 2007, p. 1489-1498.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microstructural and chemical transformation of thin Ti/Pd and TiDy/Pd bi-later films induced by vacuum annealing

AU - Lisowski, W.F.

AU - Keim, Enrico G.

AU - Kaszkur, Z.

AU - Smithers, M.A.

AU - van den Berg, A.H.J.

AU - Smithers, Mark A.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we made a comparative study of the high-temperature annealing impact on thin titanium deuteride (TiD y ) films covered by an ultrathin Pd layer, and on Ti/Pd bilayer films. The bilayer films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were in situ annealed using the same annealing procedure. It was found that the surface and the bulk morphology of both films undergo different annealing-induced transformations, leading to an extensive intermixing between the Ti and Pd layers and the formation of a new PdTi2 bimetallic phase. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, as well as XPS depth profiling all provided evidence of a different distribution of Pd and Ti in the annealed TiD y /Pd film compared with the annealed Ti/Pd film. Our results show that thermal decomposition of TiD y , as a consequence of annealing the TiD y /Pd film, modifies the intermixing process, thereby promoting Ti diffusion into the Pd-rich top layer of the TiD y film and thus providing a more likely path for the formation of the PdTi2 phase than in an annealed Ti/Pd film

AB - Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we made a comparative study of the high-temperature annealing impact on thin titanium deuteride (TiD y ) films covered by an ultrathin Pd layer, and on Ti/Pd bilayer films. The bilayer films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were in situ annealed using the same annealing procedure. It was found that the surface and the bulk morphology of both films undergo different annealing-induced transformations, leading to an extensive intermixing between the Ti and Pd layers and the formation of a new PdTi2 bimetallic phase. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, as well as XPS depth profiling all provided evidence of a different distribution of Pd and Ti in the annealed TiD y /Pd film compared with the annealed Ti/Pd film. Our results show that thermal decomposition of TiD y , as a consequence of annealing the TiD y /Pd film, modifies the intermixing process, thereby promoting Ti diffusion into the Pd-rich top layer of the TiD y film and thus providing a more likely path for the formation of the PdTi2 phase than in an annealed Ti/Pd film

KW - IR-74801

KW - METIS-245385

U2 - 10.1007/s00216-007-1594-3

DO - 10.1007/s00216-007-1594-3

M3 - Article

VL - 389

SP - 1489

EP - 1498

JO - Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

JF - Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

SN - 1618-2642

IS - 5

ER -