Copolymers with varying compositions of 2-ethoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2- dioxaphospholane (EEP) and 2-ethoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (EMEP) have been synthesized via 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene-catalyzed anionic ring-opening polymerization. The molecular weights and comonomer ratios were well controlled and polymers with reasonable molecular weight distributions (<1.5) were obtained in all cases. The copolymers were investigated by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopies to determine the underlying microstructure via detailed dyad analysis. The copolymers were found to be nontoxic to HeLa cells. Furthermore, the obtained copolymers of EEP and EMEP show thermoresponsive properties, i.e., exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST).