Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel Deposits Obtained via Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Using Metal-Cored Wire

Zidong Lin (Corresponding Author), Constantinos Goulas, Wei Ya, Marcel J.M. Hermans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

28 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a 3D metal printing technique based on the arc welding process. WAAM is considered to be suitable to produce large-scale metallic components by combining high deposition rate and low cost. WAAM uses conventional welding consumable wires as feedstock. In some applications of steel components, one-off spare parts need to be made on demand from steel grades that do not exist as commercial welding wire. In this research, a specifically produced medium carbon steel (Grade XC-45), metal-cored wire, equivalent to a composition of XC-45 forged material, was deposited with WAAM to produce a thin wall. The specific composition was chosen because it is of particular interest for the on-demand production of heavily loaded aerospace components. The microstructure, hardness, and tensile strength of the deposited part were studied. Fractography studies were conducted on the tested specimens. Due to the multiple thermal cycles during the building process, local variations in microstructural features were evident. Nevertheless, the hardness of the part was relatively uniform from the top to the bottom of the construct. The mean yield/ultimate tensile strength was 620 MPa/817 MPa in the horizontal (deposition) direction and 580 MPa/615 MPa in the vertical (build) direction, respectively. The elongation in both directions showed a significant difference, i.e., 6.4% in the horizontal direction and 11% in the vertical direction. Finally, from the dimple-like structures observed in the fractography study, a ductile fracture mode was determined. Furthermore, a comparison of mechanical properties between WAAM and traditionally processed XC-45, such as casting, forging, and cold rolling was conducted. The results show a more uniform hardness distribution and higher tensile strength of the WAAM deposit using the designed metal-cored wires.
Original languageEnglish
Article number673
Number of pages14
JournalMetals
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2019

Fingerprint

3D printers
Carbon steel
Deposits
Metals
Wire
Mechanical properties
Microstructure
Fractography
Tensile strength
Steel
Hardness
Welding
Ductile fracture
Cold rolling
Electric arc welding
Forging
Deposition rates
Chemical analysis
Feedstocks
Printing

Keywords

  • wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)

Cite this

@article{1af1924fc0044c3aa01eb8caac5c62ca,
title = "Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel Deposits Obtained via Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Using Metal-Cored Wire",
abstract = "Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a 3D metal printing technique based on the arc welding process. WAAM is considered to be suitable to produce large-scale metallic components by combining high deposition rate and low cost. WAAM uses conventional welding consumable wires as feedstock. In some applications of steel components, one-off spare parts need to be made on demand from steel grades that do not exist as commercial welding wire. In this research, a specifically produced medium carbon steel (Grade XC-45), metal-cored wire, equivalent to a composition of XC-45 forged material, was deposited with WAAM to produce a thin wall. The specific composition was chosen because it is of particular interest for the on-demand production of heavily loaded aerospace components. The microstructure, hardness, and tensile strength of the deposited part were studied. Fractography studies were conducted on the tested specimens. Due to the multiple thermal cycles during the building process, local variations in microstructural features were evident. Nevertheless, the hardness of the part was relatively uniform from the top to the bottom of the construct. The mean yield/ultimate tensile strength was 620 MPa/817 MPa in the horizontal (deposition) direction and 580 MPa/615 MPa in the vertical (build) direction, respectively. The elongation in both directions showed a significant difference, i.e., 6.4{\%} in the horizontal direction and 11{\%} in the vertical direction. Finally, from the dimple-like structures observed in the fractography study, a ductile fracture mode was determined. Furthermore, a comparison of mechanical properties between WAAM and traditionally processed XC-45, such as casting, forging, and cold rolling was conducted. The results show a more uniform hardness distribution and higher tensile strength of the WAAM deposit using the designed metal-cored wires.",
keywords = "wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)",
author = "Zidong Lin and Constantinos Goulas and Wei Ya and Hermans, {Marcel J.M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "10",
doi = "10.3390/met9060673",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Metals",
issn = "2075-4701",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute",
number = "6",

}

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel Deposits Obtained via Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Using Metal-Cored Wire. / Lin, Zidong (Corresponding Author); Goulas, Constantinos; Ya, Wei; Hermans, Marcel J.M.

In: Metals, Vol. 9, No. 6, 673, 10.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel Deposits Obtained via Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Using Metal-Cored Wire

AU - Lin, Zidong

AU - Goulas, Constantinos

AU - Ya, Wei

AU - Hermans, Marcel J.M.

PY - 2019/6/10

Y1 - 2019/6/10

N2 - Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a 3D metal printing technique based on the arc welding process. WAAM is considered to be suitable to produce large-scale metallic components by combining high deposition rate and low cost. WAAM uses conventional welding consumable wires as feedstock. In some applications of steel components, one-off spare parts need to be made on demand from steel grades that do not exist as commercial welding wire. In this research, a specifically produced medium carbon steel (Grade XC-45), metal-cored wire, equivalent to a composition of XC-45 forged material, was deposited with WAAM to produce a thin wall. The specific composition was chosen because it is of particular interest for the on-demand production of heavily loaded aerospace components. The microstructure, hardness, and tensile strength of the deposited part were studied. Fractography studies were conducted on the tested specimens. Due to the multiple thermal cycles during the building process, local variations in microstructural features were evident. Nevertheless, the hardness of the part was relatively uniform from the top to the bottom of the construct. The mean yield/ultimate tensile strength was 620 MPa/817 MPa in the horizontal (deposition) direction and 580 MPa/615 MPa in the vertical (build) direction, respectively. The elongation in both directions showed a significant difference, i.e., 6.4% in the horizontal direction and 11% in the vertical direction. Finally, from the dimple-like structures observed in the fractography study, a ductile fracture mode was determined. Furthermore, a comparison of mechanical properties between WAAM and traditionally processed XC-45, such as casting, forging, and cold rolling was conducted. The results show a more uniform hardness distribution and higher tensile strength of the WAAM deposit using the designed metal-cored wires.

AB - Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a 3D metal printing technique based on the arc welding process. WAAM is considered to be suitable to produce large-scale metallic components by combining high deposition rate and low cost. WAAM uses conventional welding consumable wires as feedstock. In some applications of steel components, one-off spare parts need to be made on demand from steel grades that do not exist as commercial welding wire. In this research, a specifically produced medium carbon steel (Grade XC-45), metal-cored wire, equivalent to a composition of XC-45 forged material, was deposited with WAAM to produce a thin wall. The specific composition was chosen because it is of particular interest for the on-demand production of heavily loaded aerospace components. The microstructure, hardness, and tensile strength of the deposited part were studied. Fractography studies were conducted on the tested specimens. Due to the multiple thermal cycles during the building process, local variations in microstructural features were evident. Nevertheless, the hardness of the part was relatively uniform from the top to the bottom of the construct. The mean yield/ultimate tensile strength was 620 MPa/817 MPa in the horizontal (deposition) direction and 580 MPa/615 MPa in the vertical (build) direction, respectively. The elongation in both directions showed a significant difference, i.e., 6.4% in the horizontal direction and 11% in the vertical direction. Finally, from the dimple-like structures observed in the fractography study, a ductile fracture mode was determined. Furthermore, a comparison of mechanical properties between WAAM and traditionally processed XC-45, such as casting, forging, and cold rolling was conducted. The results show a more uniform hardness distribution and higher tensile strength of the WAAM deposit using the designed metal-cored wires.

KW - wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)

U2 - 10.3390/met9060673

DO - 10.3390/met9060673

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Metals

JF - Metals

SN - 2075-4701

IS - 6

M1 - 673

ER -