MINERVA, A New Code to Model Free-Electron Lasers

H.P. Freund, P.J.M. van der Slot*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

3 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


Simulation codes modeling the interaction of electrons with an optical field inside an undulator are an essential tool for understanding and designing free-electron lasers (FELs). As there exists a large variety of FELs ranging from long-wavelength oscillators using partial wave guiding to soft and hard x-ray FELs that are either seeded or starting from noise, a simulation code should be capable of modeling this huge variety of FEL configurations. A new code under development, named MINERVA, will be capable of modeling such a large variety of FELs. The code uses a modal expansion for the optical field, e.g., a Gaussian expansion for free-space propagation, and an expansion in waveguide modes for propagation at long wavelengths, or a combination of the two for partial guiding at THz frequencies. MINERVA uses the full Newton-Lorentz force equation to track the particles through the optical and magnetic fields. To allow propagation of the optical field outside the undulator and interact with optical elements, MINERVA interfaces with the optical propagation code OPC. Here we describe the main features of MINERVA and give various examples of its capabilities.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2014
Event36th International Free Electron Laser Conference, FEL 2014 - Basel, Switzerland
Duration: 25 Aug 201429 Aug 2014
Conference number: 36


Conference36th International Free Electron Laser Conference, FEL 2014
Abbreviated titleFEL
Internet address


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