Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment

Tihomir Knežević, Lis K. Nanver, Tomislav Suligoj

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Abstract

PureB single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) were investigated with the aid of a newly developed TCAD-based numerical modeling method with which characteristics related to the avalanching behavior can be simulated. The p + region forming the anode of the PureB p + n photodiode is extremely shallow, only a few nanometer deep, which is essential for obtaining a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) for near-, vacuum- and extreme-ultraviolet (NUV/VUV/EUV) light detection but when an implicit guard ring (GR) is implemented, the dark count rate (DCR) can, despite the GR, be deteriorated at the very sharp corners of the p + -region where there is a high concentration of the electric-field. By comparing measurements to simulations, the main mechanism dominating the DCR in the PureB SPADs was identified as band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) while trap-assisted-tunneling also plays a role when the perimeter breakdown is low. Increasing the dose of carriers in the enhancement region negatively impacts the total DCR of the device, but also shifts the origin of the dominant DCR contribution from perimeter to the active region. The simulations for optimization of the SPAD geometry predict that a modification of the n-doped epitaxial region of the PureB SPADs could decrease the DCR by almost two orders of magnitude. This is achieved by increasing the n-epi-layer thickness from 1 μm to 3 μm and lowering the doping from 10 15 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3. A high electric field at the vertical pn junction in the active region can also be minimized by modifying the implantation parameters of the n-enhancement region thus keeping the BTBT contribution to the DCR sufficiently low.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhysics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII
EditorsMarek Osinski, Bernd Witzigmann, Yasuhiko Arakawa
PublisherSPIE
ISBN (Electronic)9781510624665
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Feb 2019
EventPhysics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII 2019 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 5 Feb 20197 Feb 2019
Conference number: 27

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume10912
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X

Conference

ConferencePhysics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII 2019
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco
Period5/02/197/02/19

Fingerprint

Avalanche diodes
Single Photon Avalanche Diode
environment simulation
avalanche diodes
Simulation Environment
Count
Photons
optimization
photons
Perimeter
Electric fields
Electric Field
Enhancement
Photodiodes
electric fields
augmentation
rings
Ring
Implantation
Anodes

Keywords

  • Avalanche breakdown
  • Band-to-band tunneling
  • Detectors
  • Guard rings
  • Photodiode
  • Pure boron
  • Silicon
  • Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs)
  • Trap-assisted tunneling

Cite this

Knežević, T., Nanver, L. K., & Suligoj, T. (2019). Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment. In M. Osinski, B. Witzigmann, & Y. Arakawa (Eds.), Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII [109120Y] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 10912). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2508829
Knežević, Tihomir ; Nanver, Lis K. ; Suligoj, Tomislav. / Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment. Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII. editor / Marek Osinski ; Bernd Witzigmann ; Yasuhiko Arakawa. SPIE, 2019. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering).
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title = "Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment",
abstract = "PureB single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) were investigated with the aid of a newly developed TCAD-based numerical modeling method with which characteristics related to the avalanching behavior can be simulated. The p + region forming the anode of the PureB p + n photodiode is extremely shallow, only a few nanometer deep, which is essential for obtaining a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) for near-, vacuum- and extreme-ultraviolet (NUV/VUV/EUV) light detection but when an implicit guard ring (GR) is implemented, the dark count rate (DCR) can, despite the GR, be deteriorated at the very sharp corners of the p + -region where there is a high concentration of the electric-field. By comparing measurements to simulations, the main mechanism dominating the DCR in the PureB SPADs was identified as band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) while trap-assisted-tunneling also plays a role when the perimeter breakdown is low. Increasing the dose of carriers in the enhancement region negatively impacts the total DCR of the device, but also shifts the origin of the dominant DCR contribution from perimeter to the active region. The simulations for optimization of the SPAD geometry predict that a modification of the n-doped epitaxial region of the PureB SPADs could decrease the DCR by almost two orders of magnitude. This is achieved by increasing the n-epi-layer thickness from 1 μm to 3 μm and lowering the doping from 10 15 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3. A high electric field at the vertical pn junction in the active region can also be minimized by modifying the implantation parameters of the n-enhancement region thus keeping the BTBT contribution to the DCR sufficiently low.",
keywords = "Avalanche breakdown, Band-to-band tunneling, Detectors, Guard rings, Photodiode, Pure boron, Silicon, Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), Trap-assisted tunneling",
author = "Tihomir Knežević and Nanver, {Lis K.} and Tomislav Suligoj",
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month = "2",
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series = "Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering",
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editor = "Marek Osinski and Bernd Witzigmann and Yasuhiko Arakawa",
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address = "United States",

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Knežević, T, Nanver, LK & Suligoj, T 2019, Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment. in M Osinski, B Witzigmann & Y Arakawa (eds), Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII., 109120Y, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 10912, SPIE, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII 2019, San Francisco, United States, 5/02/19. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2508829

Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment. / Knežević, Tihomir; Nanver, Lis K.; Suligoj, Tomislav.

Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII. ed. / Marek Osinski; Bernd Witzigmann; Yasuhiko Arakawa. SPIE, 2019. 109120Y (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 10912).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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N2 - PureB single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) were investigated with the aid of a newly developed TCAD-based numerical modeling method with which characteristics related to the avalanching behavior can be simulated. The p + region forming the anode of the PureB p + n photodiode is extremely shallow, only a few nanometer deep, which is essential for obtaining a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) for near-, vacuum- and extreme-ultraviolet (NUV/VUV/EUV) light detection but when an implicit guard ring (GR) is implemented, the dark count rate (DCR) can, despite the GR, be deteriorated at the very sharp corners of the p + -region where there is a high concentration of the electric-field. By comparing measurements to simulations, the main mechanism dominating the DCR in the PureB SPADs was identified as band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) while trap-assisted-tunneling also plays a role when the perimeter breakdown is low. Increasing the dose of carriers in the enhancement region negatively impacts the total DCR of the device, but also shifts the origin of the dominant DCR contribution from perimeter to the active region. The simulations for optimization of the SPAD geometry predict that a modification of the n-doped epitaxial region of the PureB SPADs could decrease the DCR by almost two orders of magnitude. This is achieved by increasing the n-epi-layer thickness from 1 μm to 3 μm and lowering the doping from 10 15 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3. A high electric field at the vertical pn junction in the active region can also be minimized by modifying the implantation parameters of the n-enhancement region thus keeping the BTBT contribution to the DCR sufficiently low.

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KW - Avalanche breakdown

KW - Band-to-band tunneling

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KW - Guard rings

KW - Photodiode

KW - Pure boron

KW - Silicon

KW - Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs)

KW - Trap-assisted tunneling

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T3 - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

BT - Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII

A2 - Osinski, Marek

A2 - Witzigmann, Bernd

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Knežević T, Nanver LK, Suligoj T. Minimization of dark counts in PureB SPADs for NUV/VUV/EUV light detection by employing a 2D TCAD-based simulation environment. In Osinski M, Witzigmann B, Arakawa Y, editors, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVII. SPIE. 2019. 109120Y. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2508829