Minimizing the Interface-Driven Losses in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules

Xin Zhang, Weiming Qiu*, Sofia Apergi, Shivam Singh, Paulo Marchezi, Wenya Song, Christian Sternemann, Karim Elkhouly, Dong Zhang, Aranzazu Aguirre, Tamara Merckx, Anurag Krishna, Yuanyuan Shi, Andrea Bracesco, Cristian van Helvoirt, Frennie Bens, Valerio Zardetto, Jan D’Haen, Anran Yu, Geert BrocksTom Aernouts, Ellen Moons, Shuxia Tao, Yiqiang Zhan, Yinghuan Kuang, Jef Poortmans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


The inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells hold high promise for scale-up toward commercialization. However, the interfaces between the perovskite and the charge transport layers contribute to major power conversion efficiency (PCE) loss and instability. Here, we use a single material of 2-thiopheneethylammonium chloride (TEACl) to molecularly engineer both the interface between the perovskite and fullerene-C60 electron transport layer and the buried interface between the perovskite and NiOx-based hole transport layer. The dual interface modification results in optimized band alignment, suppressed nonradiative recombination, and improved interfacial contact. A PCE of 24.3% is demonstrated, with open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of 1.17 V and 84.6%, respectively. The unencapsulated device retains >97.0% of the initial performance after 1000 h of maximum power point tracking under illumination. Moreover, a PCE of 22.6% and a remarkable FF of 82.4% are obtained for a mini-module with an active area of 3.63

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2532-2542
Number of pages11
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number6
Early online date9 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2023


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