Mixing it Up: Simulation of Mixed Traffic Container Terminals

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The development from a completely manual brownfield terminal towards a highly automated one proceeds in a number of steps. To take the first steps, it is crucial to know how introducing Automated Yard Tractors (AYTs) influences port productivity at Mixed-Traffic Terminals (MTTs). In these terminals, (non-automated) road trucks and yard tractors share the same infrastructure. This paper employs discrete-event simulation in order to analyze the performance of a brownfield terminal where manual yard tractors are replaced by AYTs. The results look promising: high utilization rates are reached in MTTs, with a modest number of AYTs. In fact, these utilization rates are reached with the same number of yard tractors as are typically used in comparable terminals with manually operated vehicles. Special attention is paid to the influence of road trucks on terminal congestion during peak hours.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2020 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2020
EditorsK.-H. Bae, B. Feng, S. Kim, S. Lazarova-Molnar, Z. Zheng, T. Roeder, R. Thiesing
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781728194998
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2021
EventWinter Simulation Conference, WSC 2020: Simulation Drives Innovation - Virtual Conference, Orlando, United States
Duration: 14 Dec 202018 Dec 2020

Publication series

NameProceedings - Winter Simulation Conference
ISSN (Print)0891-7736


ConferenceWinter Simulation Conference, WSC 2020
Abbreviated titleWSC 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
Internet address


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