Mobile mapping : road environment mapping using mobile laser scanning : final report

H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppa, A. Kukko, M. Lehtomaki, A. Jaakkola, G. Vosselman, S.J. Oude Elberink, M. Rutzinger, Shi Pu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


The objective of the "EuroSDR Mobile Mapping - Road Environment Mapping using Mobile Laser Scanning" project was to evaluate the quality of mobile laser scanning systems and methods with special focus on accuracy and feasibility. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems can collect high density point cloud data with high accuracy. A permanent test field established in the project suits well for verifying and comparing the performance of different mobile laser scanning systems. The test field was measured with several commercial and research systems, such as RIEGL VMX-250, Streetmapper 360 and Optech Lynx of the TerraTec AS, FGI Roamer and FGI Sensei. A geodetic network of terrestrial laser scannings was used as the reference for the quality analysis. Each system provided the data using the system specific pre-processing standards. The system comparison focussing on planimetric and elevation errors using filtered DEM, poles and building corners as reference objects, revealed the high quality point clouds generated by all systems with good GNSS conditions. With all professional systems properly calibrated, the elevation accuracy was better than 3.5 cm up to 35 m distance. The best system had 2.5 cm planimetric accuracy even with the range of 45 m. The planimetric errors increase as a function of range, but moderately if the system was properly calibrated. The main focus on MLS development in near-future should concentrate on the improvements of trajectory solution, especially under non-ideal conditions, using both improved hardware (additional sensors) and software solutions (postprocessing). The benchmarking of algorithms did not collect a high number of inputs. The results obtained by ITC and FGI could be used to assess the present state of the art in point cloud processing of MLS. Currently, a level of 80-90 % correct detections can be obtained for object recognition (to those objects most feasible for MLS data) and the rest needs to be done in interactive editing process. Since the goal of MLS processing is to have high automation supported by minimum amount of manual work and to create accurate 3D models of roadsides and cities, there is still a significant contribution needed for future research. Finnish Geodetic Institute, Mobile Mapping research group (, continues the test site development for MLS, the benchmarking of MLS methods and putting MLS data to public use also in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication EuroSDR Official Publication no 62
Place of PublicationLeuven
PublisherEuropean Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR)
Number of pages47
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NameOfficial publication


  • METIS-298859


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