Children with dyslexia are often provided with audio-support to compensate for their reading problems, but this may intervene with their learning. The aim of the study was to examine modality and redundancy effects in 21 children with dyslexia, compared to 21 typically developing peers (5 th grade), on study outcome (retention and transfer knowledge) and study time in user-paced learning environments and the role of their executive functions (verbal and visual working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility) on these effects. Results showed no effects on retention knowledge. Regarding transfer knowledge, a modality effect in children with dyslexia was found, and a reversed redundancy effect in typically developing children. For transfer knowledge, written text with pictures supported knowledge gain in typically developing children, but not in children with dyslexia who benefited more from auditory-presented information with pictures. Study time showed modality and reversed redundancy effects in both groups. In all children, studying in a written text with pictures condition took longer than with audio replacing the text or being added to it. Results also showed that executive functions were related to learning, but they did not differ between the groups, nor did they impact the found modality and redundancy effects. The present research thus shows that, irrespectively of children's executive functions, adding audio-support for all children, can potentially lead to more efficient learning.
- Executive functions
- Modality and redundancy effect
- Multimedia learning
- Primary school