Mode interaction in horses, tea, and other nonlinear oscillators: the universal role of symmetry

J.P. van der Weele, E.J. Banning, Erik J. Banning

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This paper is about mode interaction in systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators. The main ideas are demonstrated by means of a model consisting of two coupled, parametrically driven pendulums. On the basis of this we also discuss mode interaction in the Faraday experiment (as observed by Ciliberto and Gollub) and in running animals. In all these systems the interaction between two modes is seen to take place via a third mode: This interaction mode is a common daughter, born by means of a symmetry breaking bifurcation, of the two interacting modes. Thus, not just any two modes can interact with each other, but only those that are linked (in the system's group-theoretical hierarchy) by a common daughter mode. This is the quintessence of mode interaction. In many cases of interest, the interaction mode is seen to undergo further bifurcations, and this can eventually lead to chaos. These stages correspond to lower and lower levels of symmetry, and the constraints imposed by group theory become less and less restrictive. Indeed, the precise sequence of events during these later stages is determined not so much by group-theoretical stipulations as by the accidental values of the nonlinear terms in the equations of motion.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)953-965
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican journal of physics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • METIS-202521
  • IR-36608

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