Model-based testing of stochastically timed systems

Marcus Gerhold, Arnd Hartmanns* (Corresponding Author), Mariëlle Stoelinga

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)
    65 Downloads (Pure)


    Many systems are inherently stochastic: they interact with unpredictable environments or use randomised algorithms. Classical model-based testing is insufficient for such systems: it only covers functional correctness. In this paper, we present two model-based testing frameworks that additionally cover the stochastic aspects in hard and soft real-time systems. Using the theory of Markov automata and stochastic automata for specifications, test cases, and a formal notion of conformance, they provide clean mechanisms to represent underspecification, randomisation, and stochastic timing. Markov automata provide a simple memoryless model of time, while stochastic automata support arbitrary continuous and discrete probability distributions. We cleanly define the theoretical foundations, outline practical algorithms for statistical conformance checking, and evaluate both frameworks’ capabilities by testing timing aspects of the Bluetooth device discovery protocol. We highlight the trade-off of simple and efficient statistical evaluation for Markov automata versus precise and realistic modelling with stochastic automata.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)207-233
    Number of pages27
    JournalInnovations in systems and software engineering
    Issue number3-4
    Early online date18 Jun 2019
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019


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