Modeling and predicting end-to-end response times in multi-tier internet applications

Sandjai Bhulai*, Swaminathan Sivasubramanian, Rob van der Mei, Maarten van Steen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Many Internet applications employ multi-tier software architectures. The performance of such multi-tier Internet applications is typically measured by the end-to-end response times. Most of the earlier works in modeling the response times of such systems have limited their study to modeling the mean. However, since the user-perceived performance is highly influenced by the variability in response times, the variance of the response times is important as well. We first develop a simple model for the end-to-end response times for multi-tiered Internet applications. We validate the model by real data from two large-scale applications that are widely deployed on the Internet. Second, we derive exact and approximate expressions for the mean and the variance, respectively, of the end-to-end response times. Extensive numerical validation shows that the approximations match very well with simulations. These observations make the results presented highly useful for capacity planning and performance prediction of large-scale multi-tiered Internet applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationManaging Traffic Performance in Converged Networks
Subtitle of host publication20th International Teletraffic Congress, ITC20 2007, Ottawa, Canada, June 17-21, 2007. Proceedings
EditorsLorne Mason, Tadeusz Drwiega, James Yan
Place of PublicationBerlin, Heidelberg
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-540-72990-7
ISBN (Print)978-3-540-72989-1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes
Event20th International Teletraffic Congress 2007 - Ottawa, Canada
Duration: 17 Jun 200721 Jun 2007
Conference number: 20

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference20th International Teletraffic Congress 2007
Abbreviated titleITC 2007


  • End-to-end response times
  • Internet services
  • Multi-tier architectures
  • Variance approximation


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