Modeling competences in enterprise architecture: from knowledge, skills, and attitudes to organizational capabilities

Rodrigo Fernandes Calhau*, João Paulo A. Almeida, Satyanarayana Kokkula, Giancarlo Guizzardi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Competence-based approaches have received increased attention, as the demand for qualified people with the right combination of competences establishes itself as a major factor of organizational performance. This paper examines how competences can be incorporated into Enterprise Architecture modeling: (i) we identify a key set of competence-related concepts such as knowledge, skills, and attitudes, (ii) analyze and relate them using a reference ontology (grounded on the Unified Foundational Ontology), and (iii) propose a representation strategy for modeling competences and their constituent elements leveraging the ArchiMate language, discussing how the proposed models can fit in enterprise competence-based practices. Our approach is intended to cover two tasks relevant to the combined application of Enterprise Architecture and Competence Modeling: ‘zooming in’ on competences, revealing the relations between competences, knowledge, skills, attitudes and other personal characteristics that matter in organizational performance, and ‘zooming out’ of competences, placing them in the wider context of other personal competences and overall organizational capabilities. An assessment of the representation is offered in the form of an empirical survey.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages40
JournalSoftware and systems modeling
Early online date5 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 5 Mar 2024


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Competences
  • Enterprise Architecture
  • Ontologies
  • Competence Modeling


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