The shuffle motor is a linear electrostatic stepper motor employing a mechanical transformation to obtain large forces and small steps. A model has been made to calculate the step size and the driving voltage as a function of the load force and the motor geometry. The motor consists of three polysilicon layers and has been fabricated using surface micromachining. Tests show an effective step size of about 85 nm and a produced force of 43 μN at 40 V driving voltage.
Tas, N. R., Wissink, J., Lammerink, T. S. J., Sander, L., Elwenspoek, M. C., & Sander, A. F. M. (1998). Modeling, design and testing of the electrostatic shuffle motor. Sensors and actuators. A: Physical, 1998(70), 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-4247(98)00129-0