Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions

H.P. Uranus, Hugo Hoekstra

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

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Abstract

Theoretical investigations on the enhancement of integrated optical sensor performance by utilizing the slow-light phenomenon are presented. For this study, we take a sensor consisting of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) [1] layout, which employs ring-resonator-based coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) slow-light structures in both the sensing and reference arms. The waveguides are assumed to be made of Si3N4 material, grown on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and covered by a PECVD grown SiO2 cladding. Through a window etched on top of the CROW section at the sensing arm, the evanescent tail of light traveling in the resonators interrogates the solution to be sensed either directly or through a selective chemo-optical transduction layer. The phase shift between the two arms readout by the interference in the MZI is a measure of the refractive index or the concentration of specific chemical substance of the solution. Using the transfer matrix method and the complex transmission coefficient approach, we modeled the CROW and derived parameters related to the sensing performance and their relation to the slow-light phenomenon. We show quantitatively, how much advantage can be expected by exploiting the slow-light phenomenon in the CROW in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and figure of merit (if compared with a sensor made of ordinary waveguides in terms of chip area and sensing solution volume reduction for the same sensitivity, or sensitivity gain for the same chip area occupation). By taking realistic structure parameters, we obtained that a resolution in refractive index changes down to 2×10-9 corresponding to a sensing layer thickness resolution of 10-6 nm can be obtained with light as slow as vg/c=0.01, using a 3-resonator CROW with ring-resonators with an attenuation constant of 1 dB/cm. For this result, we assume that an insertion loss of 20 dB is tolerable by the detection system and a wavelength in the neighborhood of 0.6328um is used. We also show that resonator loss is the parameter, which limits the achievable light slowness and sensor resolution.
Original languageUndefined
Title of host publicationThe Sense of Contact VIII
Place of PublicationWageningen, The Netherlands
PublisherIEEE LEOS Society
Pages-
Number of pages1
ISBN (Print)90-74702-52-X
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006
Event8th Sensor Technology Conference Sense of Contact 2006 - Wageningen, The Netherlands, Wageningen, Netherlands
Duration: 28 Mar 200628 Mar 2006
Conference number: 8

Publication series

Name
PublisherFHI (Dutch Federation of Technology Branches) and STW (Dutch Applied Technology Foundation)
Numbersuppl 2

Conference

Conference8th Sensor Technology Conference Sense of Contact 2006
Abbreviated titleSense of Contact VIII
CountryNetherlands
CityWageningen
Period28/03/0628/03/06
Other28 March 2006

Keywords

  • IR-66745
  • IOMS-SNS: SENSORS
  • METIS-237812
  • EWI-8638

Cite this

Uranus, H. P., & Hoekstra, H. (2006). Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions. In The Sense of Contact VIII (pp. -). Wageningen, The Netherlands: IEEE LEOS Society.
Uranus, H.P. ; Hoekstra, Hugo. / Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions. The Sense of Contact VIII. Wageningen, The Netherlands : IEEE LEOS Society, 2006. pp. -
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title = "Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions",
abstract = "Theoretical investigations on the enhancement of integrated optical sensor performance by utilizing the slow-light phenomenon are presented. For this study, we take a sensor consisting of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) [1] layout, which employs ring-resonator-based coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) slow-light structures in both the sensing and reference arms. The waveguides are assumed to be made of Si3N4 material, grown on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and covered by a PECVD grown SiO2 cladding. Through a window etched on top of the CROW section at the sensing arm, the evanescent tail of light traveling in the resonators interrogates the solution to be sensed either directly or through a selective chemo-optical transduction layer. The phase shift between the two arms readout by the interference in the MZI is a measure of the refractive index or the concentration of specific chemical substance of the solution. Using the transfer matrix method and the complex transmission coefficient approach, we modeled the CROW and derived parameters related to the sensing performance and their relation to the slow-light phenomenon. We show quantitatively, how much advantage can be expected by exploiting the slow-light phenomenon in the CROW in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and figure of merit (if compared with a sensor made of ordinary waveguides in terms of chip area and sensing solution volume reduction for the same sensitivity, or sensitivity gain for the same chip area occupation). By taking realistic structure parameters, we obtained that a resolution in refractive index changes down to 2×10-9 corresponding to a sensing layer thickness resolution of 10-6 nm can be obtained with light as slow as vg/c=0.01, using a 3-resonator CROW with ring-resonators with an attenuation constant of 1 dB/cm. For this result, we assume that an insertion loss of 20 dB is tolerable by the detection system and a wavelength in the neighborhood of 0.6328um is used. We also show that resonator loss is the parameter, which limits the achievable light slowness and sensor resolution.",
keywords = "IR-66745, IOMS-SNS: SENSORS, METIS-237812, EWI-8638",
author = "H.P. Uranus and Hugo Hoekstra",
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Uranus, HP & Hoekstra, H 2006, Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions. in The Sense of Contact VIII. IEEE LEOS Society, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. -, 8th Sensor Technology Conference Sense of Contact 2006, Wageningen, Netherlands, 28/03/06.

Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions. / Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo.

The Sense of Contact VIII. Wageningen, The Netherlands : IEEE LEOS Society, 2006. p. -.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

TY - GEN

T1 - Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions

AU - Uranus, H.P.

AU - Hoekstra, Hugo

N1 - The proceeding is published only in CD format. The organizer of this yearly conference is FHI (Dutch Federation of Technology Branches) and STW (Dutch Applied Technology Foundation). For more information on the conference please see http://www2.fhi.nl/senseofcontact/

PY - 2006/3

Y1 - 2006/3

N2 - Theoretical investigations on the enhancement of integrated optical sensor performance by utilizing the slow-light phenomenon are presented. For this study, we take a sensor consisting of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) [1] layout, which employs ring-resonator-based coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) slow-light structures in both the sensing and reference arms. The waveguides are assumed to be made of Si3N4 material, grown on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and covered by a PECVD grown SiO2 cladding. Through a window etched on top of the CROW section at the sensing arm, the evanescent tail of light traveling in the resonators interrogates the solution to be sensed either directly or through a selective chemo-optical transduction layer. The phase shift between the two arms readout by the interference in the MZI is a measure of the refractive index or the concentration of specific chemical substance of the solution. Using the transfer matrix method and the complex transmission coefficient approach, we modeled the CROW and derived parameters related to the sensing performance and their relation to the slow-light phenomenon. We show quantitatively, how much advantage can be expected by exploiting the slow-light phenomenon in the CROW in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and figure of merit (if compared with a sensor made of ordinary waveguides in terms of chip area and sensing solution volume reduction for the same sensitivity, or sensitivity gain for the same chip area occupation). By taking realistic structure parameters, we obtained that a resolution in refractive index changes down to 2×10-9 corresponding to a sensing layer thickness resolution of 10-6 nm can be obtained with light as slow as vg/c=0.01, using a 3-resonator CROW with ring-resonators with an attenuation constant of 1 dB/cm. For this result, we assume that an insertion loss of 20 dB is tolerable by the detection system and a wavelength in the neighborhood of 0.6328um is used. We also show that resonator loss is the parameter, which limits the achievable light slowness and sensor resolution.

AB - Theoretical investigations on the enhancement of integrated optical sensor performance by utilizing the slow-light phenomenon are presented. For this study, we take a sensor consisting of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) [1] layout, which employs ring-resonator-based coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) slow-light structures in both the sensing and reference arms. The waveguides are assumed to be made of Si3N4 material, grown on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and covered by a PECVD grown SiO2 cladding. Through a window etched on top of the CROW section at the sensing arm, the evanescent tail of light traveling in the resonators interrogates the solution to be sensed either directly or through a selective chemo-optical transduction layer. The phase shift between the two arms readout by the interference in the MZI is a measure of the refractive index or the concentration of specific chemical substance of the solution. Using the transfer matrix method and the complex transmission coefficient approach, we modeled the CROW and derived parameters related to the sensing performance and their relation to the slow-light phenomenon. We show quantitatively, how much advantage can be expected by exploiting the slow-light phenomenon in the CROW in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and figure of merit (if compared with a sensor made of ordinary waveguides in terms of chip area and sensing solution volume reduction for the same sensitivity, or sensitivity gain for the same chip area occupation). By taking realistic structure parameters, we obtained that a resolution in refractive index changes down to 2×10-9 corresponding to a sensing layer thickness resolution of 10-6 nm can be obtained with light as slow as vg/c=0.01, using a 3-resonator CROW with ring-resonators with an attenuation constant of 1 dB/cm. For this result, we assume that an insertion loss of 20 dB is tolerable by the detection system and a wavelength in the neighborhood of 0.6328um is used. We also show that resonator loss is the parameter, which limits the achievable light slowness and sensor resolution.

KW - IR-66745

KW - IOMS-SNS: SENSORS

KW - METIS-237812

KW - EWI-8638

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 90-74702-52-X

SP - -

BT - The Sense of Contact VIII

PB - IEEE LEOS Society

CY - Wageningen, The Netherlands

ER -

Uranus HP, Hoekstra H. Modeling of slow-light structure for sensing of watery solutions. In The Sense of Contact VIII. Wageningen, The Netherlands: IEEE LEOS Society. 2006. p. -