Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for example, Genesis 1.3 for FELs, to model oscillators with full paraxial wave propagation within the resonator. A flexible scripting interface is used both to describe the optical resonator and to control the codes for propagation and amplification. To illustrate its capabilities, we numerically investigate two significantly different FEL oscillators: the free-electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX) system and the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV)-FEL oscillator of the proposed high-gain fourth generation light source. For the FELIX system, we find that diffraction losses are a considerable part of the single-pass cavity loss (at a wavelength of 40 µm). We also demonstrate that a resonator with hole coupling may be a viable alternative to a standard resonator with transmissive optics for the high gain VUV-FEL oscillator.