Modeling the Peano fluidic muscle and the effects of its material properties on its static and dynamic behavior

Allan Joshua Veale, Sheng Quan Xie, Iain Alexander Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The promise of wearable assistive robotics cannot be realized without the development of actuators that mimic the behavior and form of biological muscles. Planar fluidic muscles known as Peano muscles or pouch motors have the potential to provide the high force and compliance of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles with the low threshold pressure of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles. Yet they do so in a soft and slim form that can be discreetly distributed over the human body. This work is an investigation into the empirical modeling of the Peano muscle, the effect of its material on its performance, and its capabilities and limitations. We discovered that the Peano muscle could provide responsive and discreet actuation of soft and rigid bodies requiring strains between 15% and 30%. Ideally, they are made of non-viscoelastic materials with high tensile and low bending stiffnesses. While Sarosi et al's empirical model accurately captures its static behavior with an root mean square error of 10.2 N, their dynamic model overestimates oscillation frequency and damping. We propose that the Peano muscle be modeled by a parallel ideal contractile unit and viscoelastic element, both in series with another viscoelastic element.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalSmart materials & structures
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • fluidic artificial muscles
  • actuator
  • Peano muscle modeling
  • McKibben muscle
  • static and dynamic behavior
  • material properties

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