Modelling of annual sand transports at the Dutch lower shoreface

Bart Grasmeijer*, Bas Huisman, Arjen Luijendijk, Reinier Schrijvershof, Jebbe Van Der Werf, Firmijn Zijl, Harry De Looff, Wout De Vries

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

Dutch coastal policy aims for a safe, economically strong and attractive coast. This is achieved by maintaining the part of the coast that support these functions; the coastal foundation. The coastal foundation is maintained by means of sand nourishments. Up to now, it has been assumed that net transports across the coastal foundation's offshore boundary at the 20 m depth contour are negligibly small. In the framework of the Coastal Genesis 2.0 program we investigated sand transports across this boundary and across other depth contours at the lower shoreface. This paper presents a computationally efficient approach to compute the annual sand transport rates at the Dutch lower shoreface. It is based on the 3D Dutch Continental Shelf Model with Flexible Mesh (3D DCSM-FM), a wave transformation tool and a 1DV sand transport module. We validate the hydrodynamic input against field measurements and present flow, wave and sand transport computations for the years 2013–2017. Our computations show that the net annual sand transport rates along the Dutch coast are determined by peak tidal velocities (and asymmetry thereof), density driven residual flows, wind driven residual flows and waves. The annual mean alongshore transports vary along the continuous 20 m depth contour. The computed total cross-shore transports are onshore directed over the continuous 20 m, 18 m and 16 m depth contours and increase with decreasing water depth. The effect of density difference and wind on the 3D structure of the flow and on the sand transports cannot be neglected along the Dutch lower shoreface. Our computations show that excluding the effect of density results in a significant decrease of the onshore directed transports. Also switching off wind largely counteracts this effect. The net cross-shore transport is determined by a delicate balance between gross onshore and offshore transports, where wave conditions are important. We show an example for Scheveningen where the net cross-shore transport is onshore directed when including all wave conditions but would be offshore directed when excluding waves higher than 3.5 m. In contrast, at Callantsoog the highest waves contribute more to the offshore directed transports. These results suggest that storm conditions play an important role in the magnitude and direction of the net annual transport rates at the lower shoreface.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105984
JournalOcean & coastal management
Volume217
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2022

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