Molecular beam and pulsed laser deposition of ZnS: Cr for intermediate band solar cells

Mohammadreza Nematollahi*, Xiaodong Yang, Lars Martin Sandvik Aas, Zahra Ghadyani, Morten Kildemo, Ursula J. Gibson, Turid W. Reenaas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


We have investigated the structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cr) thin films (0-7.5 at.% Cr) for use in intermediate band solar cells. The films were grown on Si(100) in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) equipments. Introducing Cr into ZnS resulted in Cr related sub-bandgap absorption, but also reduced the grain size. The sub-bandgap absorption increased with increasing Cr content, and with increasing growth temperature, but did not depend on the growth method. In contrast, the crystallinity depended strongly on the growth method, and smoother and highly textured films were obtained by PLD. The data indicate that stacking faults are present in all films.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-330
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Doping and alloying
  • Intermediate band solar cell
  • Molecular beam epitaxy
  • Optical properties
  • Pulsed laser deposition
  • Transition-metal-doped semiconductor


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