Morphological muscle and joint parameters for musculoskeletal modelling of the lower extremity.

M.D. Klein Horsman, Hubertus F.J.M. Koopman, F.C.T. van der Helm, L. Poliacu Prosé, H.E.J. Veeger

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315 Citations (Scopus)


Background: To assist in the treatment of gait disorders, an inverse and forward 3D musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity will be useful that allows to evaluate if–then scenarios. Currently available anatomical datasets do not comprise sufficiently accurate and complete information to construct such a model. The aim of this paper is to present a complete and consistent anatomical dataset, containing the orientations of joints (hip, knee, ankle and subtalar joints), muscle parameters (optimum length, physiological cross sectional area), and geometrical parameters (attachment sites, ‘via’ points). Methods: One lower extremity, taken from a male embalmed specimen, was studied. Position and geometry were measured with a 3D-digitizer. Optotrak was used for measurement of rotation axes of joints. Sarcomere length was measured by laser diffraction. Findings: A total of 38 muscles were measured. Each muscle was divided in different muscle lines of action based on muscle morphology. 14 Ligaments of the hip, knee and ankle were included. Interpretation: The presented anatomical dataset embraces all necessary data for state of the art musculoskeletal modelling of the lower extremity. Implementation of these data into an (existing) model is likely to significantly improve the estimation of muscle forces and will thus make the use of the model as a clinical tool more feasible.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)239-247
Number of pages13
JournalClinical biomechanics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • METIS-244943
  • Lower extremity
  • Sarcomere length
  • Ligament
  • Musculoskeletal model
  • Muscle parameters
  • IR-78838

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