Digital projectors have been increasingly utilized in various commercial and scientific applications. However, they are prone to the out-of-focus blurring problem since their depth-of-fields are typically limited. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of utilizing a deep learning-based approach to analyze the spatially-varying and depth-dependent defocus properties of digital projectors. A multimodal displaying/imaging system is built for capturing images projected at various depths. Based on the constructed dataset containing well-aligned in-focus, out-of-focus, and depth images, we propose a novel multi-channel residual deep network model to learn the end-to-end mapping function between the in-focus and out-of-focus image patches captured at different spatial locations and depths. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first research work revealing that the complex spatially-varying and depth-dependent blurring effects can be accurately learned from a number of real-captured image pairs instead of being hand-crafted as before. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed deep learning-based method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art defocus kernel estimation techniques and thus leads to better out-of-focus compensation for extending the dynamic ranges of digital projectors.
Cao, Y., Ye, Z., He, Z., Yang, J., Cao, Y., Tisse, C., & Yang, M. Y. (2020). Multi-channel residual network model for accurate estimation of spatially-varying and depth-dependent defocus kernels. Optics express, 28(2), 2263-2275. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.383127