Multi-Receiver Cross-Correlation Technique for (B)FSK Radios

Vijaya Kumar Purushothaman*, Mina R.M. Mikhael, Mark S. Oude Alink, Eric A.M. Klumperink, Andre B.J. Kokkeler, Bram Nauta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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This article presents a multi-receiver cross-correlation technique for (B)FSK receivers, targeting wireless sensor network applications. Here, multiple receiver outputs are pair-wise cross-correlated and the correlated output samples are averaged to lower the noise floor at the receiver output. Compared to a two-receiver cross-correlation, multi-receiver cross-correlation generates more cross-correlated output samples in a given time. Hence it requires a shorter measurement time for a desired noise floor reduction and facilitates a higher data rate for (B)FSK operation. Compared to a single receiver, it improves the linearity and the harmonic interferer tolerance using passive splitters and different LO frequencies in the receiver paths respectively. These theoretical insights are verified with measurements for the first time using a 2-and 3-receiver cross-correlation in a BFSK receiver. Operating at 1 GHz and with a data rate of 200 kbps, the demonstrator, using sub-mW mixer-first receiver front-ends for power efficiency, achieves -102 dBm sensitivity and >40 dB rejection for both narrow and wideband harmonic interferers without any RF filters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96791-96798
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date5 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2021


  • Cross correlation
  • Mixer-first receiver
  • Passive mixer
  • BFSK
  • Noise reduction
  • Low power
  • Interferer-robustness
  • Harmonic rejection
  • Wireless sensor network (WSN)


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