Multiple Evaluation: A New Testing Paradigm That Exorcizes Guessing

Arie Dirkzwager

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic


The crux in psychometrics is how to estimate the probability that a respondent answers an item correctly on one occasion out of many. Under the current testing paradigm this probability is estimated using all kinds of statistical techniques and mathematical modeling. Multiple evaluation is a new testing paradigm using the person's own personal estimates of these probabilities as data. It is compared to multiple choice, which appears to be a degenerated form of multiple evaluation. Multiple evaluation has much less measurement error than multiple choice, and this measurement error is not in favor of the examinee. When the test is used for selection purposes as it is with multiple choice, the probability of a Type II error (unjustified passes) is almost negligible. Procedures for statistical item-and-test analyses under the multiple evaluation paradigm are presented. These procedures provide more accurate information in comparison to what is possible under the multiple choice paradigm. A computer program that implements multiple evaluation is also discussed.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)333-352
JournalInternational journal of testing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • IR-58640

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