The formation of large network aggregates composed of gold nanoparticles bearing surface-immobilized b-cyclodextrin (CD) hosts whose assembly is driven by adamantyl-terminated guest molecules was studied as a function of the number of interactions and the geometry of the guest molecules. The assembly was shown to be strong, specific, and irreversible by addition of an adamantyl-terminated dendrimer leading to strong aggregation of the CD-Au nanoparticles and consequently to the formation of an insoluble precipitate. The bis-adamantane guest molecule 3 allowed more control over the self-assembly of such aggregates. Intramolecular interactions (at the same particle) were favored in this case over the intermolecular interactions (between particles), and the aggregation process of this guest could be inhibited by a monovalent competitor in solution.
Crespo biel, O., Jukovic, A., Karsson, M., Reinhoudt, D., & Huskens, J. (2005). Multivalent aggregation of cyclodextrin gold nanoparticles and adamantyl-terminated guest molecules. Israel journal of chemistry, 45(3), 353-362. https://doi.org/10.1560/AF3P-K2A6-MDCK-1678