We report a unique multiyear L-band microwave radiometry dataset collected at the Maqu site on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and demonstrate its utilities in advancing our understandings of microwave observations of land surface processes. The presented dataset contains measurements of L-band brightness temperature by an ELBARA-III microwave radiometer in horizontal and vertical polarization, profile soil moisture and soil temperature, turbulent heat fluxes, and meteorological data from the beginning of 2016 till August 2019, while the experiment is still continuing. Auxiliary vegetation and soil texture information collected in dedicated campaigns are also reported. This dataset can be used to validate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite based observations and retrievals, verify radiative transfer model assumptions and validate land surface model and reanalysis outputs, retrieve soil properties, as well as to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water and carbon and help to reduce discrepancies and uncertainties in current Earth System Models (ESM) parameterizations. Measurement cases in winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods are presented.