Nanocarriers with Multiple Cargo Load—A Comprehensive Preparation Guideline Using Orthogonal Strategies

Natkritta Hueppe, Frederik R. Wurm*, Katharina Landfester

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
81 Downloads (Pure)


Multifunctional nanocarriers enhance the treatment efficacy for modern therapeutics and have gained increasing importance in biomedical research. Codelivery of multiple bioactive molecules enables synergistic therapies. Coencapsulation of cargo molecules into one nanocarrier system is challenging due to different physicochemical properties of the cargo molecules. Additionally, coencapsulation of multiple molecules simultaneously shall proceed with high control and efficiency. Orthogonal approaches for the preparation of nanocarriers are essential to encapsulate sensitive bioactive molecules while preserving their bioactivity. Preparation of nanocarriers by physical processes (i.e., self-assembly or coacervation) and chemical reactions (i.e., click reactions, polymerizations, etc.) are considered as orthogonal methods to most cargo molecules. This review shall act as a guideline to allow the reader to select a suitable preparation protocol for a desired nanocarrier system. This article helps to select for combinations of cargo molecules (hydrophilic-hydrophobic, small-macro, organic–inorganic) with nanocarrier material and synthesis protocols. The focus of this article lies on the coencapsulation of multiple cargo molecules into biocompatible and biodegradable nanocarriers prepared by orthogonal strategies. With this toolbox, the selection of a preparation method for a known set of cargo molecules to prepare the desired biodegradable and loaded nanocarrier shall be provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200611
Number of pages18
JournalMacromolecular rapid communications
Issue number16
Early online date13 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Drug delivery
  • Microcarriers
  • Miniemulsion
  • Nanocarrier
  • Dispersion


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