Nanometer lithography on silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon with low energy electrons

N. Kramer, J. Jorritsma, H. Birk, C. Schönenberger

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Abstract

The oxidation of a hydrogen terminated Si surface can locally be induced with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) operating in air or with a beam of free electrons in a controlled oxygen environment. The oxidation mechanism of both processes was studied and compared. The oxidation with the STM in air depends strongly on the applied tip‐substrate voltage and writing speed, but is not proportional to the tunnelling current. This is in contrast to the process with a beam of free electrons. The thickness of the electron beam induced oxide is studied as a function of electron energy, electron dose, and oxygen pressure. Oxide thicknesses of 0.5–3 nm are measured using Auger spectroscopy. The initial step of the oxidation process is the electron beam induced removal of hydrogen from the surface. The electron dose requirement for this step was determined as a function of electron energy. The dose is found to be minimal for 100 eV electrons, and is ≊4 mC/cm2. Oxide lines made with the STM on Si(110) were used as a mask to wet etch the pattern into the Si(110). With tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, a selective anisotropic etch liquid, trenches with a width of 35 nm and a depth of 300 nm were made. We show that it is also possible to locally oxidize hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a‐Si:H) and use the oxide as an etching mask. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has the advantage that it can be deposited in very thin layers on almost any substrate and therefore has great potential as STM and electron‐beam resist.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)805-811
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of vacuum science and technology. B: Microelectronics and nanometer structures
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1995

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Silicon
Amorphous silicon
Lithography
amorphous silicon
lithography
electron energy
microscopes
Electrons
silicon
Oxides
oxidation
scanning
oxides
Microscopes
Scanning
dosage
free electrons
Oxidation
masks
electron beams

Cite this

@article{147fdaae46af47d9aa71df4dc384d79e,
title = "Nanometer lithography on silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon with low energy electrons",
abstract = "The oxidation of a hydrogen terminated Si surface can locally be induced with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) operating in air or with a beam of free electrons in a controlled oxygen environment. The oxidation mechanism of both processes was studied and compared. The oxidation with the STM in air depends strongly on the applied tip‐substrate voltage and writing speed, but is not proportional to the tunnelling current. This is in contrast to the process with a beam of free electrons. The thickness of the electron beam induced oxide is studied as a function of electron energy, electron dose, and oxygen pressure. Oxide thicknesses of 0.5–3 nm are measured using Auger spectroscopy. The initial step of the oxidation process is the electron beam induced removal of hydrogen from the surface. The electron dose requirement for this step was determined as a function of electron energy. The dose is found to be minimal for 100 eV electrons, and is ≊4 mC/cm2. Oxide lines made with the STM on Si(110) were used as a mask to wet etch the pattern into the Si(110). With tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, a selective anisotropic etch liquid, trenches with a width of 35 nm and a depth of 300 nm were made. We show that it is also possible to locally oxidize hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a‐Si:H) and use the oxide as an etching mask. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has the advantage that it can be deposited in very thin layers on almost any substrate and therefore has great potential as STM and electron‐beam resist.",
author = "N. Kramer and J. Jorritsma and H. Birk and C. Sch{\"o}nenberger",
year = "1995",
doi = "10.1116/1.587858",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "805--811",
journal = "Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics",
issn = "2166-2746",
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}

Nanometer lithography on silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon with low energy electrons. / Kramer, N.; Jorritsma, J.; Birk, H.; Schönenberger, C.

In: Journal of vacuum science and technology. B: Microelectronics and nanometer structures, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1995, p. 805-811.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nanometer lithography on silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon with low energy electrons

AU - Kramer, N.

AU - Jorritsma, J.

AU - Birk, H.

AU - Schönenberger, C.

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - The oxidation of a hydrogen terminated Si surface can locally be induced with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) operating in air or with a beam of free electrons in a controlled oxygen environment. The oxidation mechanism of both processes was studied and compared. The oxidation with the STM in air depends strongly on the applied tip‐substrate voltage and writing speed, but is not proportional to the tunnelling current. This is in contrast to the process with a beam of free electrons. The thickness of the electron beam induced oxide is studied as a function of electron energy, electron dose, and oxygen pressure. Oxide thicknesses of 0.5–3 nm are measured using Auger spectroscopy. The initial step of the oxidation process is the electron beam induced removal of hydrogen from the surface. The electron dose requirement for this step was determined as a function of electron energy. The dose is found to be minimal for 100 eV electrons, and is ≊4 mC/cm2. Oxide lines made with the STM on Si(110) were used as a mask to wet etch the pattern into the Si(110). With tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, a selective anisotropic etch liquid, trenches with a width of 35 nm and a depth of 300 nm were made. We show that it is also possible to locally oxidize hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a‐Si:H) and use the oxide as an etching mask. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has the advantage that it can be deposited in very thin layers on almost any substrate and therefore has great potential as STM and electron‐beam resist.

AB - The oxidation of a hydrogen terminated Si surface can locally be induced with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) operating in air or with a beam of free electrons in a controlled oxygen environment. The oxidation mechanism of both processes was studied and compared. The oxidation with the STM in air depends strongly on the applied tip‐substrate voltage and writing speed, but is not proportional to the tunnelling current. This is in contrast to the process with a beam of free electrons. The thickness of the electron beam induced oxide is studied as a function of electron energy, electron dose, and oxygen pressure. Oxide thicknesses of 0.5–3 nm are measured using Auger spectroscopy. The initial step of the oxidation process is the electron beam induced removal of hydrogen from the surface. The electron dose requirement for this step was determined as a function of electron energy. The dose is found to be minimal for 100 eV electrons, and is ≊4 mC/cm2. Oxide lines made with the STM on Si(110) were used as a mask to wet etch the pattern into the Si(110). With tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, a selective anisotropic etch liquid, trenches with a width of 35 nm and a depth of 300 nm were made. We show that it is also possible to locally oxidize hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a‐Si:H) and use the oxide as an etching mask. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has the advantage that it can be deposited in very thin layers on almost any substrate and therefore has great potential as STM and electron‐beam resist.

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