The differing national heritage of gas market development determines specific positions held in the unfolding liberalization process. This chapter suggests a framework for comparative analysis of national responses to the emerging EU gas market liberalization and harmonization. The development of gas markets in Europe was guided by a specific focus on national gas policies. This chapter pursues this idea of focused guidance of gas market development as a point of departure to distinguish two different models for gas market development: a public property focused model, and a public utility focused model. The first model refers to the countries with voluminous gas fields and the public utility model refers to the countries without voluminous gas fields. In addition to these two models, the commodity focused model refers to a gas market where natural gas is perceived as a freely tradable commodity. This commodity-oriented model is now challenging all EU countries due to the EU Gas Directive. Liberalization has affected the image and perception of natural gas, which can no longer be considered only as public property or a public utility.
|Title of host publication||National Reforms in European Gas|
|Editors||Maarten J. Arentsen, Rolf W. Künneke|
|Place of Publication||London|
|Publication status||Published - 2003|
|Name||Elsevier Global Energy Policy and Economics Series|