Native T1 reference values for nonischemic cardiomyopathies and populations with increased cardiovascular risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Maaike van den Boomen*, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Enzo V. Hulleman, Rudi A.J.O. Dierckx, Birgitta K. Velthuis, Pim van der Harst, David E. Sosnovik, Ronald J.H. Borra, Niek H.J. Prakken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Although cardiac MR and T1 mapping are increasingly used to diagnose diffuse fibrosis based cardiac diseases, studies reporting T1 values in healthy and diseased myocardium, particular in nonischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and populations with increased cardiovascular risk, seem contradictory. Purpose: To determine the range of native myocardial T1 value ranges in patients with NICM and populations with increased cardiovascular risk. Study Type: Systemic review and meta-analysis. Population: Patients with NICM, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and patients with myocarditis (MC), iron overload, amyloidosis, Fabry disease, and populations with hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity. Field Strength/Sequence: (Shortened) modified Look–Locker inversion-recovery MR sequence at 1.5 or 3T. Assessment: PubMed and Embase were searched following the PRISMA guidelines. Statistical Tests: The summary of standard mean difference (SMD) between the diseased and a healthy control populations was generated using a random-effects model in combination with meta-regression analysis. Results: The SMD for HCM, DCM, and MC patients were significantly increased (1.41, 1.48, and 1.96, respectively, P < 0.01) compared with healthy controls. The SMD for HT patients with and without left-ventricle hypertrophy (LVH) together was significantly increased (0.19, P = 0.04), while for HT patients without LVH the SMD was zero (0.03, P = 0.52). The number of studies on amyloidosis, iron overload, Fabry disease, and HT patients with LVH did not meet the requirement to perform a meta-analysis. However, most studies reported a significantly increased T1 for amyloidosis and HT patients with LVH and a significant decreased T1 for iron overload and Fabry disease patients. Data Conclusions: Native T1 mapping by using an (Sh)MOLLI sequence can potentially assess myocardial changes in HCM, DCM, MC, iron overload, amyloidosis, and Fabry disease compared to controls. In addition, it can help to diagnose left-ventricular remodeling in HT patients. Level of Evidence: 2. Technical Efficacy: Stage 3. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:891–912.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)891-912
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of magnetic resonance imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


  • (Sh)MOLLI
  • cardiac risk populations
  • diffuse fibrosis
  • meta-analysis
  • native T mapping
  • nonischemic cardiomyopathy


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