Nd3+-complex-doped polymer channel waveguide amplifiers with various lengths and Nd3+ concentrations are fabricated by a simple procedure. Internal net gain at 840–950 nm and 1064 nm is experimentally and theoretically investigated under continuous-wave excitation at 800 nm. Internal net gain in the range 865–930 nm is observed and a peak gain of 2.8 dB at 873 nm is obtained in a 1.9-cm-long waveguide with a Nd3+ concentration of 0.6x10e20 cm-3 at a launched pump power of 25 mW. The small-signal gain measured in a 1-cm-long sample with a Nd3+ concentration of 1.03x10e20 cm-3 is 2.0 dB/cm and 5.7 dB/cm at 873 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. By use of a rate-equation model, the internal net gain at these two wavelengths is calculated and the macroscopic parameter of energy-transfer upconversion as a function of Nd3+ concentration is derived. Ease of fabrication, compatibility with other materials, and low cost make such rare-earth-ion-doped polymer waveguide amplifiers suitable for providing gain in many integrated optical devices.
- IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices
- Energy-transfer upconversion
- net optical gain
- polymer channel waveguide amplifier