Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 µm

Stefan R. Lüthi, Markus Pollnau, Hans U. Güdel, Markus P. Hehlen

  • 82 Citations

Abstract

A detailed study of upconversion processes in Cs3Er2X9 (X = Cl, Br, I) crystals and in the diluted systems Cs3Lu2Cl9:1% Er3+, Cs3Lu2Br9:1% Er3+, and Cs3Y2I9:1% Er3+ is presented. Efficient two-, three-, and four-step upconversion excitation along the sequence 4I15/2 4I13/2 4I9/2 4S3/2 2H9/2 leading to luminescence throughout the visible and near UV is demonstrated using a 1.54-µm excitation wavelength. This stepwise excitation is possible due to the low phonon energies and, consequently, the significantly longer lifetime of the 4I9/2 intermediate state in these systems relative to oxides and fluorides. The absorption and upconversion luminescence intensities increase along the isostructural series X = Cl, Br, I as a result of the decreasing energy of the electric-dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions and, thus, their increasing influence on the parity forbidden 4f-4f transitions. The excitation mechanisms in the chloride systems are investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy and the respective dynamics is studied by a rate-equation model. In the diluted sample 4I9/2 4S3/2 excited-state absorption plays a major role and occurs within 3 cm-1 of the ground-state absorption, whereas the dynamics in the concentrated system is dominated by energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) in all excitation steps. Of the 35 most likely ETU processes, eight are found to contribute significantly to the excitation mechanisms in the concentrated system. The excitation pathways leading to red luminescence from 4F9/2 are also partly resolved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-178
Number of pages17
JournalPhysical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics
Volume60
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

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Luminescence
Energy transfer
Excited states
Ground state
Spectroscopy
Infrared radiation
Wavelength
Crystals
Oxides

Keywords

  • IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices
  • IR-70100
  • EWI-17566

Cite this

Lüthi, Stefan R.; Pollnau, Markus; Güdel, Hans U.; Hehlen, Markus P. / Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 µm.

In: Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics, Vol. 60, No. 1, 1999, p. 162-178.

Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewArticle

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title = "Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 µm",
abstract = "A detailed study of upconversion processes in Cs3Er2X9 (X = Cl, Br, I) crystals and in the diluted systems Cs3Lu2Cl9:1% Er3+, Cs3Lu2Br9:1% Er3+, and Cs3Y2I9:1% Er3+ is presented. Efficient two-, three-, and four-step upconversion excitation along the sequence 4I15/2 4I13/2 4I9/2 4S3/2 2H9/2 leading to luminescence throughout the visible and near UV is demonstrated using a 1.54-µm excitation wavelength. This stepwise excitation is possible due to the low phonon energies and, consequently, the significantly longer lifetime of the 4I9/2 intermediate state in these systems relative to oxides and fluorides. The absorption and upconversion luminescence intensities increase along the isostructural series X = Cl, Br, I as a result of the decreasing energy of the electric-dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions and, thus, their increasing influence on the parity forbidden 4f-4f transitions. The excitation mechanisms in the chloride systems are investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy and the respective dynamics is studied by a rate-equation model. In the diluted sample 4I9/2 4S3/2 excited-state absorption plays a major role and occurs within 3 cm-1 of the ground-state absorption, whereas the dynamics in the concentrated system is dominated by energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) in all excitation steps. Of the 35 most likely ETU processes, eight are found to contribute significantly to the excitation mechanisms in the concentrated system. The excitation pathways leading to red luminescence from 4F9/2 are also partly resolved.",
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year = "1999",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevB.60.162",
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journal = "Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics",
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Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 µm. / Lüthi, Stefan R.; Pollnau, Markus; Güdel, Hans U.; Hehlen, Markus P.

In: Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics, Vol. 60, No. 1, 1999, p. 162-178.

Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 µm

AU - Lüthi,Stefan R.

AU - Pollnau,Markus

AU - Güdel,Hans U.

AU - Hehlen,Markus P.

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - A detailed study of upconversion processes in Cs3Er2X9 (X = Cl, Br, I) crystals and in the diluted systems Cs3Lu2Cl9:1% Er3+, Cs3Lu2Br9:1% Er3+, and Cs3Y2I9:1% Er3+ is presented. Efficient two-, three-, and four-step upconversion excitation along the sequence 4I15/2 4I13/2 4I9/2 4S3/2 2H9/2 leading to luminescence throughout the visible and near UV is demonstrated using a 1.54-µm excitation wavelength. This stepwise excitation is possible due to the low phonon energies and, consequently, the significantly longer lifetime of the 4I9/2 intermediate state in these systems relative to oxides and fluorides. The absorption and upconversion luminescence intensities increase along the isostructural series X = Cl, Br, I as a result of the decreasing energy of the electric-dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions and, thus, their increasing influence on the parity forbidden 4f-4f transitions. The excitation mechanisms in the chloride systems are investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy and the respective dynamics is studied by a rate-equation model. In the diluted sample 4I9/2 4S3/2 excited-state absorption plays a major role and occurs within 3 cm-1 of the ground-state absorption, whereas the dynamics in the concentrated system is dominated by energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) in all excitation steps. Of the 35 most likely ETU processes, eight are found to contribute significantly to the excitation mechanisms in the concentrated system. The excitation pathways leading to red luminescence from 4F9/2 are also partly resolved.

AB - A detailed study of upconversion processes in Cs3Er2X9 (X = Cl, Br, I) crystals and in the diluted systems Cs3Lu2Cl9:1% Er3+, Cs3Lu2Br9:1% Er3+, and Cs3Y2I9:1% Er3+ is presented. Efficient two-, three-, and four-step upconversion excitation along the sequence 4I15/2 4I13/2 4I9/2 4S3/2 2H9/2 leading to luminescence throughout the visible and near UV is demonstrated using a 1.54-µm excitation wavelength. This stepwise excitation is possible due to the low phonon energies and, consequently, the significantly longer lifetime of the 4I9/2 intermediate state in these systems relative to oxides and fluorides. The absorption and upconversion luminescence intensities increase along the isostructural series X = Cl, Br, I as a result of the decreasing energy of the electric-dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions and, thus, their increasing influence on the parity forbidden 4f-4f transitions. The excitation mechanisms in the chloride systems are investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy and the respective dynamics is studied by a rate-equation model. In the diluted sample 4I9/2 4S3/2 excited-state absorption plays a major role and occurs within 3 cm-1 of the ground-state absorption, whereas the dynamics in the concentrated system is dominated by energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) in all excitation steps. Of the 35 most likely ETU processes, eight are found to contribute significantly to the excitation mechanisms in the concentrated system. The excitation pathways leading to red luminescence from 4F9/2 are also partly resolved.

KW - IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices

KW - IR-70100

KW - EWI-17566

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevB.60.162

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevB.60.162

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 162

EP - 178

JO - Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics

T2 - Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics

JF - Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics

SN - 1098-0121

IS - 1

ER -