Near vertical incidence skywave propagation: Elevation angles and optimum antenna height for horizontal dipole antennas

Ben A. Witvliet, Erik van Maanen, George J. Petersen, Albert J. Westenberg, Marinus Jan Bentum, Cornelis H. Slump, Roelof Schiphorst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) communication uses the ionosphere as a reflector to cover a continuous area with a radius of at least 150 km around the transmitter, on frequencies typically between 3 and 10 MHz. In developing countries, in areas lacking any other telecommunication infrastructure, it is used on a daily basis for voice and data communication. It may also be used in ad-hoc emergency (disaster) communication in other regions. This paper proposes optimum heights above ground for horizontal dipole antennas for NVIS, based on simulations and empirical data. First, the relationship between elevation angle and skip distance is obtained using ionospheric ray tracing. The high elevation angles found by simulation are confirmed by elevation angle measurements using a professional radio direction finder. The measurements also show the dominance of NVIS over ground wave propagation starting at a short distance. For these elevation angles, the optimum receive and transmit antenna heights above ground are derived using antenna simulations. A distinction is made between optimum transmit signal strength and optimum received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These optima are verified experimentally, demonstrating a novel evaluation method that can be used in the presence of the fading typical for ionospheric propagation. For farmland soil ( 20 mS/m, "r 17) the optimum height above ground for the transmit antenna is 0.180.22. If the antenna is lowered to 0.02 a transmit signal loss of 12 dB occurs. This corresponds with the theory. The receive antenna height, however, while appearing uncritical in the simulations, showed a clear optimum at 0.16 and a 27 dB SNR deterioration when lowered to 0.02.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-146
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE antennas and propagation magazine
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2015

Fingerprint

elevation angle
dipole antennas
Dipole antennas
antennas
incidence
Antenna grounds
Antennas
propagation
communication
ground wave propagation
Signal to noise ratio
radio direction finders
Ionospheric electromagnetic wave propagation
signal to noise ratios
voice communication
simulation
ionospheric propagation
farmlands
Fading (radio)
Voice/data communication systems

Keywords

  • EWI-26021
  • IR-95936
  • METIS-312610

Cite this

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title = "Near vertical incidence skywave propagation: Elevation angles and optimum antenna height for horizontal dipole antennas",
abstract = "Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) communication uses the ionosphere as a reflector to cover a continuous area with a radius of at least 150 km around the transmitter, on frequencies typically between 3 and 10 MHz. In developing countries, in areas lacking any other telecommunication infrastructure, it is used on a daily basis for voice and data communication. It may also be used in ad-hoc emergency (disaster) communication in other regions. This paper proposes optimum heights above ground for horizontal dipole antennas for NVIS, based on simulations and empirical data. First, the relationship between elevation angle and skip distance is obtained using ionospheric ray tracing. The high elevation angles found by simulation are confirmed by elevation angle measurements using a professional radio direction finder. The measurements also show the dominance of NVIS over ground wave propagation starting at a short distance. For these elevation angles, the optimum receive and transmit antenna heights above ground are derived using antenna simulations. A distinction is made between optimum transmit signal strength and optimum received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These optima are verified experimentally, demonstrating a novel evaluation method that can be used in the presence of the fading typical for ionospheric propagation. For farmland soil ( 20 mS/m, {"}r 17) the optimum height above ground for the transmit antenna is 0.180.22. If the antenna is lowered to 0.02 a transmit signal loss of 12 dB occurs. This corresponds with the theory. The receive antenna height, however, while appearing uncritical in the simulations, showed a clear optimum at 0.16 and a 27 dB SNR deterioration when lowered to 0.02.",
keywords = "EWI-26021, IR-95936, METIS-312610",
author = "Witvliet, {Ben A.} and {van Maanen}, Erik and Petersen, {George J.} and Westenberg, {Albert J.} and Bentum, {Marinus Jan} and Slump, {Cornelis H.} and Roelof Schiphorst",
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year = "2015",
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day = "24",
doi = "10.1109/MAP.2015.2397071",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
pages = "129--146",
journal = "IEEE antennas and propagation magazine",
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Near vertical incidence skywave propagation: Elevation angles and optimum antenna height for horizontal dipole antennas. / Witvliet, Ben A.; van Maanen, Erik; Petersen, George J.; Westenberg, Albert J.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roelof.

In: IEEE antennas and propagation magazine, Vol. 57, No. 1, 24.02.2015, p. 129-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Near vertical incidence skywave propagation: Elevation angles and optimum antenna height for horizontal dipole antennas

AU - Witvliet, Ben A.

AU - van Maanen, Erik

AU - Petersen, George J.

AU - Westenberg, Albert J.

AU - Bentum, Marinus Jan

AU - Slump, Cornelis H.

AU - Schiphorst, Roelof

N1 - eemcs-eprint-26021 ; http://eprints.ewi.utwente.nl/26021

PY - 2015/2/24

Y1 - 2015/2/24

N2 - Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) communication uses the ionosphere as a reflector to cover a continuous area with a radius of at least 150 km around the transmitter, on frequencies typically between 3 and 10 MHz. In developing countries, in areas lacking any other telecommunication infrastructure, it is used on a daily basis for voice and data communication. It may also be used in ad-hoc emergency (disaster) communication in other regions. This paper proposes optimum heights above ground for horizontal dipole antennas for NVIS, based on simulations and empirical data. First, the relationship between elevation angle and skip distance is obtained using ionospheric ray tracing. The high elevation angles found by simulation are confirmed by elevation angle measurements using a professional radio direction finder. The measurements also show the dominance of NVIS over ground wave propagation starting at a short distance. For these elevation angles, the optimum receive and transmit antenna heights above ground are derived using antenna simulations. A distinction is made between optimum transmit signal strength and optimum received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These optima are verified experimentally, demonstrating a novel evaluation method that can be used in the presence of the fading typical for ionospheric propagation. For farmland soil ( 20 mS/m, "r 17) the optimum height above ground for the transmit antenna is 0.180.22. If the antenna is lowered to 0.02 a transmit signal loss of 12 dB occurs. This corresponds with the theory. The receive antenna height, however, while appearing uncritical in the simulations, showed a clear optimum at 0.16 and a 27 dB SNR deterioration when lowered to 0.02.

AB - Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) communication uses the ionosphere as a reflector to cover a continuous area with a radius of at least 150 km around the transmitter, on frequencies typically between 3 and 10 MHz. In developing countries, in areas lacking any other telecommunication infrastructure, it is used on a daily basis for voice and data communication. It may also be used in ad-hoc emergency (disaster) communication in other regions. This paper proposes optimum heights above ground for horizontal dipole antennas for NVIS, based on simulations and empirical data. First, the relationship between elevation angle and skip distance is obtained using ionospheric ray tracing. The high elevation angles found by simulation are confirmed by elevation angle measurements using a professional radio direction finder. The measurements also show the dominance of NVIS over ground wave propagation starting at a short distance. For these elevation angles, the optimum receive and transmit antenna heights above ground are derived using antenna simulations. A distinction is made between optimum transmit signal strength and optimum received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These optima are verified experimentally, demonstrating a novel evaluation method that can be used in the presence of the fading typical for ionospheric propagation. For farmland soil ( 20 mS/m, "r 17) the optimum height above ground for the transmit antenna is 0.180.22. If the antenna is lowered to 0.02 a transmit signal loss of 12 dB occurs. This corresponds with the theory. The receive antenna height, however, while appearing uncritical in the simulations, showed a clear optimum at 0.16 and a 27 dB SNR deterioration when lowered to 0.02.

KW - EWI-26021

KW - IR-95936

KW - METIS-312610

U2 - 10.1109/MAP.2015.2397071

DO - 10.1109/MAP.2015.2397071

M3 - Article

VL - 57

SP - 129

EP - 146

JO - IEEE antennas and propagation magazine

JF - IEEE antennas and propagation magazine

SN - 1045-9243

IS - 1

ER -