A new route for the preparation of cation exchange membranes from polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS) block copolymers has been studied, using N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate. At temperatures of 0° to 20°C, N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate reacts readily with the olefin group in polyisoprenes, resulting in a β-lactam-N-sulfonyl chloride group. Films of this product can be cast which are hydrolyzed afterwards with aqueous ammonia at room temperature to give a membrane with ionic sulfonate and neutral carbamoyl groups. Homogeneous membranes are prepared with an SIS block copolymer as starting material and with mole ratios of N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate/isoprene between 15% and 45%. In hyperfiltration experiments at 40 atmospheres, both NaCl and Na2SO4 are rejected up to 82%, while fluxes of 0.25 to 0.30 cm3/cm2·hr are obtained. From permeation and hyperfiltration experiments, it is concluded that the weight fraction of membrane water has a large influence on the flux. The water content in the membrane during the hyperfiltration process is primarily determined by the applied pressure, the type of salt, and its concentration.
van der Velden, P. M., & Smolders, C. A. (1977). New cation-exchange membranes for hyperfiltration processes. Journal of applied polymer science, 21(6), 1445-1457. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1977.070210601