New imaging mode in atomic-force microscopy based on the error signal

Constant A.J. Putman, Kees O. van der Werf, Bart G. de Grooth, Niko F. van Hulst, Jan Greve, Paul K. Hansma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

106 Citations (Scopus)


A new imaging mode, the error signal mode, is introduced to atomic force microscopy. In this mode, the error signal is displayed while imaging in the height mode. The feedback loop serves as a high-pass filter that filters out the low spatial frequency components of the surface, leaving only the high spatial frequency components of the surface to contribute to the error signal and to be displayed. At a scan rate of typically 10 lines per second, images taken in this mode show very fine detail. Since the applied force stays nearly constant, the error signal mode is especially suitable for imaging soft biological samples with a high level of detail without damaging the surface.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationScanning Probe Microscopies
EditorsSrinivas Manne
Place of PublicationLos Angeles, CA
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)0-8194-0785-2
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 1992
EventSPIE OE/LASE 1992 - Los Angeles, United States
Duration: 19 Jan 199224 Jan 1992

Publication series

NameProceedings of Spie


ConferenceSPIE OE/LASE 1992
Abbreviated titleOE/LASE
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLos Angeles


  • IR-25714
  • METIS-130517


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