The research introduces an innovative approach including four layers: spatial, organizational, tactical, and public layers, and their interaction with an agent-centered perspective as a response to three challenges: (1) disregarding the interdependency among components within a complex city system, (2) underestimating secondary effects of a hazard, and (3) not fully considering the social system that is embedded within the spatial pattern of a city. The research provides examples from real cases. Indeed, failures or incidents during a disaster are emergent phenomena that are hard to predict. Furthermore, outcome of actions, which are defined in the plan by regulations, could be different from those anticipated due to constantly changing environment during disasters. The system gets stuck when people insist on applying written plans to fluctuating circumstances instead of reorganizing strategies and priorities. During disasters adapt the plan according to changes, and reorganizing resources in an environment that is changing constantly is key to enhancing resilience.