NIC: a robust background extraction algorithm for foreground detection in dynamic scenes

Thien Huynh-The, Oresti Banos, Sungyoung Lee, Byeong Ho Kang, Eun-Soo Kim, Thuong Le-Tien

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35 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper presents a robust foreground detection method capable of adapting to different motion speeds in scenes. A key contribution of this paper is the background estimation using a proposed novel algorithm, neighbor-based intensity correction (NIC), that identifies and modifies the motion pixels from the difference of the background and the current frame. Concretely, the first frame is considered as an initial background that is updated with the pixel intensity from each new frame based on the examination of neighborhood pixels. These pixels are formed into windows generated from the background and the current frame to identify whether a pixel belongs to the background or the current frame. The intensity modification procedure is based on the comparison of the standard deviation values calculated from two pixel windows. The robustness of the current background is further measured using pixel steadiness as an additional condition for the updating process. Finally, the foreground is detected by the background subtraction scheme with an optimal threshold calculated by the Otsu method. This method is benchmarked on several well-known data sets in the object detection and tracking domain, such as CAVIAR 2004, AVSS 2007, PETS 2009, PETS 2014, and CDNET 2014. We also compare the accuracy of the proposed method with other state-of-the-art methods via standard quantitative metrics under different parameter configurations. In the experiments, NIC approach outperforms several advanced methods on depressing the detected foreground confusions due to light artifact, illumination change, and camera jitter in dynamic scenes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1478-1490
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Neighbor-based intensity correction (NIC)
  • Adaptive Otsu thresholding
  • Background subtraction
  • Foreground detection

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