Noise Control in Novel Power Electronics for SMART Grid

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UTAcademic

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Abstract

As society and technology are developing, the amount of electrically powered
devices is ever increasing. The traditional electrical grid, structured in a hierarchical
way, is not capable of sustaining the rapid development and implementation
of a more dynamical consumer. By incorporating solar panels and
wind turbines at farm, businesses and even households the consumer becomes a
producer as well. This transforms the conventional grid into a more dynamical
and also distributed one. The project of which this thesis was a part of, deals
with the integration of renewable energy by applying a new architecture that
enables point-to-point power transmission and thus reduces instabilities and
improves dynamical behavior. The key objective for the University of Twente
(UT) is to find the best options for reducing interference, associated with fast
switching semiconductors as applied in the novel converter type.
This thesis starts with the development of a theoretical model based on the
control signals applied to switching power devices. The model can be used to
predict and estimate the conducted Electroagnetic Interference (EMI) generated
in switching devices using sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (sPWM)
waveforms. The model was verified in a conducted emission measurement.
Combining the model with a radiated emission estimation model, gives a description
of a noise source that is applied in the newly developed multi-level
converter.
For application in multi-level converters a sPWM generator was developed,
which with its flexibility is used to perform measurements on Galium-Nitride
(GaN) and Silicon-Carbide (SiC) based DC/AC converters, and multilevel converters.
In case of conducted EMI measurements, the results were used to verify
the theoretical model. In case of the magnetic radiated EMI measurements,
a time domain measurement technique was developed that is comparable to
using a traditional EMI receiver. The technique reduces measurement times
from minutes to several seconds per orientation and placement. In case of large
stacked multi-level converters it was deemed necessary to asses the magnetic
radiation produced in such a structure. The electric field measurements are
eventually used together with the developed mathematical model to determine
the effective radiation efficiency of the system under test.
The developed technique of determining the effective radiation efficiency,
together with the concept for optimal placement of EMI in fully integrated systems are considered to be part of the main contributions of this thesis and
can be seen as Mitigation through EMI placement. Another mitigation technique,
which is a fairly classical Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) one,
consist of implementing a filter along the propagation path of the disturbance.
Part of the research objectives was developing behavioral circuit models based
on full wave model and thus optimized filters implementing nano-crystalline
materials.
This thesis contributes with the development of an automated method for
back annotating field effects into equivalent circuit simulations. Part of this
work was the development of Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm that can fit
impedance curves to equivalent circuit elements. This was applied to measurements
and full-wave 3D simulations of relatively simple components like capacitors,
which showed optimal capacitor placement can be investigated through
circuit simulations rather then Electro-Magnetic (EM) field simulations. Extending
the research to more complex structures and components, required the
development of a 3D full wave high frequency models. This has been done for
a two phased sectionally winded Common Mode Choke (CMC), incorporating
complex permeabilities through a dispersion model.
Overall it can be concluded that this thesis has contributed to the development
of the future electrical grid, by investigating components that are
attributed to the Multifunctional Multilevel Modular Converter (M3C), which
is considered to enable the development of the ’smart grid ’. Much work still
needs to be done, from refining and applying the developed measurement techniques
to larger and fully integrated systems to developing more accurate and
faster fitting algorithms for determining equivalent circuit component values.
Also the effect of proposed mitigation techniques on various functionalities of
the M3C have to be investigated.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • University of Twente
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Leferink, Franciscus Bernardus Johannes, Supervisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date11 Oct 2019
Place of PublicationEnschede
Edition1
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-90-365-4866-3
Electronic ISBNs978-90-365-4866-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2019

Fingerprint

Acoustic variables control
Power electronics
Equivalent circuits
Pulse width modulation
Capacitors
Electric field measurement
Radiation
Electric inductors
Circuit simulation
Electromagnetic compatibility
Power transmission
Silicon carbide
Nitrides
Electromagnetic fields
Farms
Refining
Turbines
Mathematical models
Semiconductor materials

Cite this

Moonen, Niek. / Noise Control in Novel Power Electronics for SMART Grid. 1 ed. Enschede : University of Twente, 2019. 204 p.
@phdthesis{5f37a3adf7b84459b376ba5eab947071,
title = "Noise Control in Novel Power Electronics for SMART Grid",
abstract = "As society and technology are developing, the amount of electrically powereddevices is ever increasing. The traditional electrical grid, structured in a hierarchicalway, is not capable of sustaining the rapid development and implementationof a more dynamical consumer. By incorporating solar panels andwind turbines at farm, businesses and even households the consumer becomes aproducer as well. This transforms the conventional grid into a more dynamicaland also distributed one. The project of which this thesis was a part of, dealswith the integration of renewable energy by applying a new architecture thatenables point-to-point power transmission and thus reduces instabilities andimproves dynamical behavior. The key objective for the University of Twente(UT) is to find the best options for reducing interference, associated with fastswitching semiconductors as applied in the novel converter type.This thesis starts with the development of a theoretical model based on thecontrol signals applied to switching power devices. The model can be used topredict and estimate the conducted Electroagnetic Interference (EMI) generatedin switching devices using sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (sPWM)waveforms. The model was verified in a conducted emission measurement.Combining the model with a radiated emission estimation model, gives a descriptionof a noise source that is applied in the newly developed multi-levelconverter.For application in multi-level converters a sPWM generator was developed,which with its flexibility is used to perform measurements on Galium-Nitride(GaN) and Silicon-Carbide (SiC) based DC/AC converters, and multilevel converters.In case of conducted EMI measurements, the results were used to verifythe theoretical model. In case of the magnetic radiated EMI measurements,a time domain measurement technique was developed that is comparable tousing a traditional EMI receiver. The technique reduces measurement timesfrom minutes to several seconds per orientation and placement. In case of largestacked multi-level converters it was deemed necessary to asses the magneticradiation produced in such a structure. The electric field measurements areeventually used together with the developed mathematical model to determinethe effective radiation efficiency of the system under test.The developed technique of determining the effective radiation efficiency,together with the concept for optimal placement of EMI in fully integrated systems are considered to be part of the main contributions of this thesis andcan be seen as Mitigation through EMI placement. Another mitigation technique,which is a fairly classical Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) one,consist of implementing a filter along the propagation path of the disturbance.Part of the research objectives was developing behavioral circuit models basedon full wave model and thus optimized filters implementing nano-crystallinematerials.This thesis contributes with the development of an automated method forback annotating field effects into equivalent circuit simulations. Part of thiswork was the development of Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm that can fitimpedance curves to equivalent circuit elements. This was applied to measurementsand full-wave 3D simulations of relatively simple components like capacitors,which showed optimal capacitor placement can be investigated throughcircuit simulations rather then Electro-Magnetic (EM) field simulations. Extendingthe research to more complex structures and components, required thedevelopment of a 3D full wave high frequency models. This has been done fora two phased sectionally winded Common Mode Choke (CMC), incorporatingcomplex permeabilities through a dispersion model.Overall it can be concluded that this thesis has contributed to the developmentof the future electrical grid, by investigating components that areattributed to the Multifunctional Multilevel Modular Converter (M3C), whichis considered to enable the development of the ’smart grid ’. Much work stillneeds to be done, from refining and applying the developed measurement techniquesto larger and fully integrated systems to developing more accurate andfaster fitting algorithms for determining equivalent circuit component values.Also the effect of proposed mitigation techniques on various functionalities ofthe M3C have to be investigated.",
author = "Niek Moonen",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "11",
doi = "10.3990/1.9789036548663",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-90-365-4866-3",
publisher = "University of Twente",
address = "Netherlands",
edition = "1",
school = "University of Twente",

}

Noise Control in Novel Power Electronics for SMART Grid. / Moonen, Niek.

1 ed. Enschede : University of Twente, 2019. 204 p.

Research output: ThesisPhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UTAcademic

TY - THES

T1 - Noise Control in Novel Power Electronics for SMART Grid

AU - Moonen, Niek

PY - 2019/10/11

Y1 - 2019/10/11

N2 - As society and technology are developing, the amount of electrically powereddevices is ever increasing. The traditional electrical grid, structured in a hierarchicalway, is not capable of sustaining the rapid development and implementationof a more dynamical consumer. By incorporating solar panels andwind turbines at farm, businesses and even households the consumer becomes aproducer as well. This transforms the conventional grid into a more dynamicaland also distributed one. The project of which this thesis was a part of, dealswith the integration of renewable energy by applying a new architecture thatenables point-to-point power transmission and thus reduces instabilities andimproves dynamical behavior. The key objective for the University of Twente(UT) is to find the best options for reducing interference, associated with fastswitching semiconductors as applied in the novel converter type.This thesis starts with the development of a theoretical model based on thecontrol signals applied to switching power devices. The model can be used topredict and estimate the conducted Electroagnetic Interference (EMI) generatedin switching devices using sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (sPWM)waveforms. The model was verified in a conducted emission measurement.Combining the model with a radiated emission estimation model, gives a descriptionof a noise source that is applied in the newly developed multi-levelconverter.For application in multi-level converters a sPWM generator was developed,which with its flexibility is used to perform measurements on Galium-Nitride(GaN) and Silicon-Carbide (SiC) based DC/AC converters, and multilevel converters.In case of conducted EMI measurements, the results were used to verifythe theoretical model. In case of the magnetic radiated EMI measurements,a time domain measurement technique was developed that is comparable tousing a traditional EMI receiver. The technique reduces measurement timesfrom minutes to several seconds per orientation and placement. In case of largestacked multi-level converters it was deemed necessary to asses the magneticradiation produced in such a structure. The electric field measurements areeventually used together with the developed mathematical model to determinethe effective radiation efficiency of the system under test.The developed technique of determining the effective radiation efficiency,together with the concept for optimal placement of EMI in fully integrated systems are considered to be part of the main contributions of this thesis andcan be seen as Mitigation through EMI placement. Another mitigation technique,which is a fairly classical Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) one,consist of implementing a filter along the propagation path of the disturbance.Part of the research objectives was developing behavioral circuit models basedon full wave model and thus optimized filters implementing nano-crystallinematerials.This thesis contributes with the development of an automated method forback annotating field effects into equivalent circuit simulations. Part of thiswork was the development of Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm that can fitimpedance curves to equivalent circuit elements. This was applied to measurementsand full-wave 3D simulations of relatively simple components like capacitors,which showed optimal capacitor placement can be investigated throughcircuit simulations rather then Electro-Magnetic (EM) field simulations. Extendingthe research to more complex structures and components, required thedevelopment of a 3D full wave high frequency models. This has been done fora two phased sectionally winded Common Mode Choke (CMC), incorporatingcomplex permeabilities through a dispersion model.Overall it can be concluded that this thesis has contributed to the developmentof the future electrical grid, by investigating components that areattributed to the Multifunctional Multilevel Modular Converter (M3C), whichis considered to enable the development of the ’smart grid ’. Much work stillneeds to be done, from refining and applying the developed measurement techniquesto larger and fully integrated systems to developing more accurate andfaster fitting algorithms for determining equivalent circuit component values.Also the effect of proposed mitigation techniques on various functionalities ofthe M3C have to be investigated.

AB - As society and technology are developing, the amount of electrically powereddevices is ever increasing. The traditional electrical grid, structured in a hierarchicalway, is not capable of sustaining the rapid development and implementationof a more dynamical consumer. By incorporating solar panels andwind turbines at farm, businesses and even households the consumer becomes aproducer as well. This transforms the conventional grid into a more dynamicaland also distributed one. The project of which this thesis was a part of, dealswith the integration of renewable energy by applying a new architecture thatenables point-to-point power transmission and thus reduces instabilities andimproves dynamical behavior. The key objective for the University of Twente(UT) is to find the best options for reducing interference, associated with fastswitching semiconductors as applied in the novel converter type.This thesis starts with the development of a theoretical model based on thecontrol signals applied to switching power devices. The model can be used topredict and estimate the conducted Electroagnetic Interference (EMI) generatedin switching devices using sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (sPWM)waveforms. The model was verified in a conducted emission measurement.Combining the model with a radiated emission estimation model, gives a descriptionof a noise source that is applied in the newly developed multi-levelconverter.For application in multi-level converters a sPWM generator was developed,which with its flexibility is used to perform measurements on Galium-Nitride(GaN) and Silicon-Carbide (SiC) based DC/AC converters, and multilevel converters.In case of conducted EMI measurements, the results were used to verifythe theoretical model. In case of the magnetic radiated EMI measurements,a time domain measurement technique was developed that is comparable tousing a traditional EMI receiver. The technique reduces measurement timesfrom minutes to several seconds per orientation and placement. In case of largestacked multi-level converters it was deemed necessary to asses the magneticradiation produced in such a structure. The electric field measurements areeventually used together with the developed mathematical model to determinethe effective radiation efficiency of the system under test.The developed technique of determining the effective radiation efficiency,together with the concept for optimal placement of EMI in fully integrated systems are considered to be part of the main contributions of this thesis andcan be seen as Mitigation through EMI placement. Another mitigation technique,which is a fairly classical Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) one,consist of implementing a filter along the propagation path of the disturbance.Part of the research objectives was developing behavioral circuit models basedon full wave model and thus optimized filters implementing nano-crystallinematerials.This thesis contributes with the development of an automated method forback annotating field effects into equivalent circuit simulations. Part of thiswork was the development of Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm that can fitimpedance curves to equivalent circuit elements. This was applied to measurementsand full-wave 3D simulations of relatively simple components like capacitors,which showed optimal capacitor placement can be investigated throughcircuit simulations rather then Electro-Magnetic (EM) field simulations. Extendingthe research to more complex structures and components, required thedevelopment of a 3D full wave high frequency models. This has been done fora two phased sectionally winded Common Mode Choke (CMC), incorporatingcomplex permeabilities through a dispersion model.Overall it can be concluded that this thesis has contributed to the developmentof the future electrical grid, by investigating components that areattributed to the Multifunctional Multilevel Modular Converter (M3C), whichis considered to enable the development of the ’smart grid ’. Much work stillneeds to be done, from refining and applying the developed measurement techniquesto larger and fully integrated systems to developing more accurate andfaster fitting algorithms for determining equivalent circuit component values.Also the effect of proposed mitigation techniques on various functionalities ofthe M3C have to be investigated.

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DO - 10.3990/1.9789036548663

M3 - PhD Thesis - Research UT, graduation UT

SN - 978-90-365-4866-3

PB - University of Twente

CY - Enschede

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