Non-linear optical imaging – Introduction and pharmaceutical applications

A.L. Fussell, Antti Isomaki, Clare J. Strachan

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Nonlinear optical imaging is an emerging technology with much potential in pharmaceutical analysis. The technique encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and twophoton excited fluorescence (TPEF). The combined potential of these phenomena for pharmaceutical imaging includes chemical and solidstate specificity, high optical spatial and temporal resolution, nondestructive and non-contact analysis, no requirement for labels, and the compatibility with imaging in aqueous and biological environments. In this article, the theory and practical aspects of nonlinear imaging are briefly introduced and pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications are considered. These include material and dosage form characterization, drug release, and drug and nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique in the context of these analyses are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-63
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican pharmaceutical review
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • METIS-299406
  • IR-88127

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